Allison Schmitt was born on June 7, 1990 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Schmitt was a member of the 2008 USA Olympic team where she won a bronze medal in the 4 x 200 meter relay swimming event. Schmitt was a member of the 2012 USA Olympic team after qualifying to compete in the 200 and 400 meter freestyle events and will swim the 4 x 100 and 4 x 200 meter relays. At the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, Schmitt won a bronze in the 4x100-meter freestyle relay with Missy Franklin, Jessica Hardy and Lia Neal, with the U.S. team finishing third behind the women's relay teams from Australia and the Netherlands. Swimming the anchor leg, Schmitt had a split of 53.54 seconds and the team finished with a total time of 3:34.24, an American record. Schmitt won silver in the 400-meter freestyle, and in doing so, set the American record for the event. She also won a gold medal in the 200-meter freestyle while setting a new Olympic record of 1:53.61. In the 4x200-meter freestyle relay, Schmitt earned her second gold after passing Australian Alicia Coutts and topping the field with a split of 1:54.09 in the anchor leg. Also on the winning 4x200-meter relay team were Missy Franklin, Dana Vollmer and Shannon Vreeland. In her final event, the 4x100-meter medley relay, Schmitt won gold with Missy Franklin, Rebecca Soni, and Dana Vollmer. Swimming the freestyle leg, Schmitt recorded a time of 53.25, and the American team went on to set the world record with a time of 3:52.05, bettering the Chinese-owned record of 3:52.19 set in 2009.
Schmitt attended the University of Georgia where she was a four time NCAA champion.