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The '''German Democratic Republic (GDR)''', often called '''[[East Germany]]''', founded a separate [[National Olympic Committee]] for socialist East Germany on 22 April 1951 in the Rotes Rathaus of East Berlin. This was the last of three German Olympic committees of the time. It was not recognized by the IOC for over a decade.
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  +
==History==
  +
===Division of Germany===
  +
After the division of [[Germany]] following World War II, three separate states had been founded under occupation. After the Allies denied attempts made in 1947 to continue the participation of [[Germany at the Olympics]], no German team could participate in the 1948 games. Finally, in 1949, the [[Deutscher Olympischer Sportbund|National Olympic Committee for Germany]] was founded in the Western [[West Germany|Federal Republic of Germany]]. This was later recognized by the IOC as representing both German states. The small French-occupied [[Saarland]] and its NOC (SAA) joined the [[West Germany|Federal Republic of Germany]] after 1955, having not been allowed to join the German counterparts previously.
  +
  +
The East German ''Nationales Olympisches Komitee für Ostdeutschland'' authority refused to send their athletes to the 1952 games as participants of an all-German team, demanding a team of their own. This was denied by the IOC.
  +
  +
===United German Team===
  +
They agreed to participate in 1956. German athletes from the two remaining states competed at the Olympic Games in 1956, 1960 and 1964 as the [[United Team of Germany]]. While this team was simply called 'Germany' at the time, it is currently designated by the IOC as EUA, 'Équipe unifiée d'Allemagne'.
  +
  +
===Success of East Germans===
  +
The socialist GDR erected the [[Berlin wall]] in 1961, during the [[Cold War]]. They renamed their NOC to ''Nationales Olympisches Komitee der DDR'' in 1965. It was recognized as an independent NOC by the IOC in 1968. Following this, the GDR ceased participation in the United German team and sent a separate East German team from 1968 to 1988, other than absences in the summer of 1984 in support of the [[1984 Summer Olympics boycott|Soviet-led boycott of the 1984 Summer Olympics]].
  +
  +
While the GDR, a small state with a population of about 16 million, has a short history, and even an shorter history at the Olympics, it was extremely successful. From 1976 to 1988, it came second in all three of their summer Olympics, behind the Soviet Union, and well ahead of larger West Germany. This was improved upon at five winter games, with 4 second place rankings and a first in the [[Sarajevo 1984|1984 Winter Olympics]].
  +
  +
It is widely believed that doping (predominantly anabolic steroids) allowed East Germany, with its small population, to become a world leader in the following two decades. It won a large number of [[Olympic Games|Olympic]] and world gold medals and records. A number of athletes subsequently failed doping tests and others were suspected of taking performance enhancing drugs.<ref>Tagliabue, John. - [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE7D81039F931A25751C0A967958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2 "Political Pressure Dismantles East German Sports Machine"] - ''New York Times'' - February 12, 1991</ref><ref>Janofsky, Michael. - [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9D0CE1DA1731F930A35751C1A967958260 "OLYMPICS; Coaches Concede That Steroids Fueled East Germany's Success in Swimming"] - ''New York Times'' - December 3, 1991</ref> However, in many cases where suspicions existed, no proof of wrongdoing was uncovered. As a result, the majority of records and medals won by East German athletes still stand. Aside from an extensive doping programme, East Germany invested significantly in sport, particularly in Olympic sports, for reasons of prestige, propaganda and rivalry with West Germany. It had an extensive state bureaucracy to select and train promising athletes and world-class coaches.
  +
  +
An important figure in the GDR was [[Manfred Ewald]] (1926–2002), member of SED central committee from 1963. He was president of the "Staatliches Komitee für Körperkultur und Sport" (Stako) from 1952 to 1960. In 1961, he became president of the "Deutscher Turn- und Sportbund" (DTSB), governing all sport in the GDR, and in 1973 president of the NOC. He is considered to be the organiser of the "GDR sports miracle". His post-1990 autobiography was titled "''I was the Sport''". He fell from grace in 1988, having been removed from the office of DTSB. In 2001, he was found guilty of [[Doping (sport)|doping]].
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  +
===Germany undivided===
  +
The German Democratic Republic ceased to exist in 1989, joining the [[West Germany|Federal Republic of Germany]] in the process of German reunification in 1990. Accordingly, the "NOC of the GDR" joined the "NOC of Germany" on 17 November 1990. German athletes competed at the Olympic Games as a single team again from 1992 onwards. Athletes from the Eastern part of Germany contributed disproportionately to the medals won by Germany, particularly in the first decade after reunification. This is thought to indicate that doping was not the only reason East Germany was so successful (and more successful than West Germany in particular) in the Olympics, with professional training conditions also being significant. The practice of doping was implemented by a separate state, a former rival who was far less successful. The medal tally of reunited Germany after 1990 was more comparable to that of East Germany before 1990 than of West Germany before 1990. For example, of the twenty nine medals won by Germany in the [[Torino 2006|2006 Winter Olympics]], fourteen (six gold) have been by athletes born in East Germany (containing one-fifth of the population of Germany). Only nine medals (three gold) were won by athletes from West Germany, with six medals won in mixed teams. In recent years, some centers of German top-class sport have relocated to the West, for example Winter sports to Bavaria. However, the East is still performing better than the West. Trainers from East Germany (e.g. [[Uwe Müßiggang]]) were important in producing sporting success for United Germany. Also, many top-class German athletes who today live in the western part of Germany started their professional sport careers in the Eastern part, and can be seen as part of the large-scale exodus of young people from the East to the West since reunification.
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  +
==Medal tables==
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{{See also|All-time Olympic Games medal count}}
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  +
===Medals by Summer Games===
  +
{| {{MedalTable|type=Games}}
  +
|-
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|align=left| [[1952 Summer Olympics|1952 Helsinki]] ||colspan=4| ''did not participate''
  +
|-
  +
|align=left| [[1956 Summer Olympics|1956 Melbourne/Stockholm]] ||colspan=4 rowspan=3| ''Part of the [[United Team of Germany]]''
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|-
  +
|align=left| [[1960 Summer Olympics|1960 Rome]]
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|-
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|align=left| [[1964 Summer Olympics|1964 Tokyo]]
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|-
  +
|align=left| [[1968 Summer Olympics|1968 Mexico City]] || 9 || 9 || 7 || 25
  +
|-
  +
|align=left| [[1972 Summer Olympics|1972 Munich]] || 20 || 23 || 23 || 66
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|-
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|align=left| [[1976 Summer Olympics|1976 Montreal]] || 40 || 25 || 25 || 90
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|-
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|align=left| [[1980 Summer Olympics|1980 Moscow]] || 47 || 37 || 42 || 126
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|-
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|align=left| [[1984 Summer Olympics|1984 Los Angeles]] || colspan=4| ''did not participate''
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|-
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|align=left| [[1988 Summer Olympics|1988 Seoul]] || 37 || 35 || 30 || 102
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|-
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! Total || 153 || 129 || 127 || 409
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|}
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  +
===Medals by summer sport===
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{| {{MedalTable|type=Sport}}
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|-
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|align=left| [[Athletics at the Summer Olympics|Athletics]] || 38 || 36 || 35 || 109
  +
|-
  +
|align=left| [[Swimming at the Summer Olympics|Swimming]] || 38 || 32 || 22 || 92
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|-
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|align=left| [[Rowing at the Summer Olympics|Rowing]] || 33 || 7 || 8 || 48
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|-
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|align=left| [[Canoeing at the Summer Olympics|Canoeing]] || 14 || 7 || 9 || 30
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|-
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|align=left| [[Gymnastics at the Summer Olympics|Gymnastics]] || 6 || 13 || 17 || 36
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|-
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|align=left| [[Cycling at the Summer Olympics|Cycling]] || 6 || 6 || 4 || 16
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|-
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|align=left| [[Boxing at the Summer Olympics|Boxing]] || 5 || 2 || 6 || 13
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|-
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|align=left| [[Shooting at the Summer Olympics|Shooting]] || 3 || 8 || 5 || 16
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|-
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|align=left| [[Wrestling at the Summer Olympics|Wrestling]] || 2 || 3 || 2 || 7
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|-
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|align=left| [[Diving at the Summer Olympics|Diving]] || 2 || 2 || 3 || 7
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|-
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|align=left| [[Sailing at the Summer Olympics|Sailing]] || 2 || 2 || 2 || 6
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|-
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|align=left| [[Weightlifting at the Summer Olympics|Weightlifting]] || 1 || 4 || 6 || 11
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|-
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|align=left| [[Judo at the Summer Olympics|Judo]] || 1 || 2 || 6 || 9
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|-
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|align=left| [[Football at the Summer Olympics|Football]] || 1 || 1 || 1 || 3
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|-
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|align=left| [[Handball at the Summer Olympics|Handball]] || 1 || 1 || 1 || 3
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|-
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|align=left| [[Volleyball at the Summer Olympics|Volleyball]] || 0 || 2 || 0 || 2
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|-
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|align=left| [[Fencing at the Summer Olympics|Fencing]] || 0 || 1 || 0 || 1
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|-
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! Total || 153 || 129 || 127 || 409
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|}
  +
  +
===Medals by Winter Games===
  +
{| {{MedalTable|type=Games}}
  +
|-
  +
|align=left| [[1952 Winter Olympics|1952 Oslo]] ||colspan=4| ''did not participate''
  +
|-
  +
|align=left| [[1956 Winter Olympics|1956 Cortina d'Ampezzo]] ||colspan=4 rowspan=3| ''Part of the [[United Team of Germany]]''
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|-
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|align=left| [[1960 Winter Olympics|1960 Squaw Valley]]
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|-
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|align=left| [[1964 Winter Olympics|1964 Innsbruck]]
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|-
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|align=left| [[1968 Winter Olympics|1968 Grenoble]] || 1 || 2 || 2 || 5
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|-
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|align=left| [[1972 Winter Olympics|1972 Sapporo]] || 4 || 3 || 7 || 14
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|-
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|align=left| [[1976 Winter Olympics|1976 Innsbruck]] || 7 || 5 || 7 || 19
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|-
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|align=left| [[1980 Winter Olympics|1980 Lake Placid]] || 9 || 7 || 7 || 23
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|-
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|align=left| [[1984 Winter Olympics|1984 Sarajevo]] || 9 || 9 || 6 || 24
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|-
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|align=left| [[1988 Winter Olympics|1988 Calgary]] || 9 || 10 || 6 || 25
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|-
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! Total || 39 || 36 || 35 || 110
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|}
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===Medals by winter sport===
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{| {{MedalTable|type=Sport}}
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|-
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|align=left| [[Luge at the Winter Olympics|Luge]] || 13 || 8 || 8 || 29
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|-
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|align=left| [[Speed skating at the Winter Olympics|Speed skating]] || 8 || 12 || 9 || 29
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|-
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|align=left| [[Bobsleigh at the Winter Olympics|Bobsleigh]] || 5 || 5 || 3 || 13
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|-
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|align=left| [[Biathlon at the Winter Olympics|Biathlon]] || 3 || 4 || 4 || 11
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|-
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|align=left| [[Figure skating at the Winter Olympics|Figure skating]] || 3 || 3 || 4 || 10
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|-
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|align=left| [[Nordic combined at the Winter Olympics|Nordic combined]] || 3 || 0 || 4 || 7
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|-
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|align=left| [[Ski jumping at the Winter Olympics|Ski jumping]] || 2 || 3 || 2 || 7
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|-
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|align=left| [[Cross-country skiing at the Winter Olympics|Cross-country skiing]] || 2 || 1 || 1 || 4
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|-
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! Total || 39 || 36 || 35 || 110
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|}
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==References==
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* {{cite web | title=Olympic Medal Winners | publisher=[[International Olympic Committee]] |url=http://www.olympic.org/uk/athletes/results/search_r_uk.asp | accessdate=2006-12-09 }}
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==Notes==
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{{reflist}}
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==External links==
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*[http://www.sport-ddr-roeder.de/ GDR Sport System in German]
 
[[Category:Countries]]
 
[[Category:Countries]]
 
[[Category:Europe]]
 
[[Category:Europe]]

Latest revision as of 07:38, September 13, 2012

Deutsche Demokratische Republik
(German Democratic Republic)

Flag of German Democratic Republic.svg
National Flag
East Germany 1956-1990.svg
Location on Map
IOC Code GDR
Years Hosted Olympics never
Years Attended Olympics Summer: 1956-80, 1988
Winter: 1956-88
Total Olympic Medals
Gold medal iconGold Silver medal iconSilver Bronze medal iconBronze
192 165 162

The German Democratic Republic (GDR), often called East Germany, founded a separate National Olympic Committee for socialist East Germany on 22 April 1951 in the Rotes Rathaus of East Berlin. This was the last of three German Olympic committees of the time. It was not recognized by the IOC for over a decade.

HistoryEdit

Division of GermanyEdit

After the division of Germany following World War II, three separate states had been founded under occupation. After the Allies denied attempts made in 1947 to continue the participation of Germany at the Olympics, no German team could participate in the 1948 games. Finally, in 1949, the National Olympic Committee for Germany was founded in the Western Federal Republic of Germany. This was later recognized by the IOC as representing both German states. The small French-occupied Saarland and its NOC (SAA) joined the Federal Republic of Germany after 1955, having not been allowed to join the German counterparts previously.

The East German Nationales Olympisches Komitee für Ostdeutschland authority refused to send their athletes to the 1952 games as participants of an all-German team, demanding a team of their own. This was denied by the IOC.

United German TeamEdit

They agreed to participate in 1956. German athletes from the two remaining states competed at the Olympic Games in 1956, 1960 and 1964 as the United Team of Germany. While this team was simply called 'Germany' at the time, it is currently designated by the IOC as EUA, 'Équipe unifiée d'Allemagne'.

Success of East GermansEdit

The socialist GDR erected the Berlin wall in 1961, during the Cold War. They renamed their NOC to Nationales Olympisches Komitee der DDR in 1965. It was recognized as an independent NOC by the IOC in 1968. Following this, the GDR ceased participation in the United German team and sent a separate East German team from 1968 to 1988, other than absences in the summer of 1984 in support of the Soviet-led boycott of the 1984 Summer Olympics.

While the GDR, a small state with a population of about 16 million, has a short history, and even an shorter history at the Olympics, it was extremely successful. From 1976 to 1988, it came second in all three of their summer Olympics, behind the Soviet Union, and well ahead of larger West Germany. This was improved upon at five winter games, with 4 second place rankings and a first in the 1984 Winter Olympics.

It is widely believed that doping (predominantly anabolic steroids) allowed East Germany, with its small population, to become a world leader in the following two decades. It won a large number of Olympic and world gold medals and records. A number of athletes subsequently failed doping tests and others were suspected of taking performance enhancing drugs.[1][2] However, in many cases where suspicions existed, no proof of wrongdoing was uncovered. As a result, the majority of records and medals won by East German athletes still stand. Aside from an extensive doping programme, East Germany invested significantly in sport, particularly in Olympic sports, for reasons of prestige, propaganda and rivalry with West Germany. It had an extensive state bureaucracy to select and train promising athletes and world-class coaches.

An important figure in the GDR was Manfred Ewald (1926–2002), member of SED central committee from 1963. He was president of the "Staatliches Komitee für Körperkultur und Sport" (Stako) from 1952 to 1960. In 1961, he became president of the "Deutscher Turn- und Sportbund" (DTSB), governing all sport in the GDR, and in 1973 president of the NOC. He is considered to be the organiser of the "GDR sports miracle". His post-1990 autobiography was titled "I was the Sport". He fell from grace in 1988, having been removed from the office of DTSB. In 2001, he was found guilty of doping.

Germany undividedEdit

The German Democratic Republic ceased to exist in 1989, joining the Federal Republic of Germany in the process of German reunification in 1990. Accordingly, the "NOC of the GDR" joined the "NOC of Germany" on 17 November 1990. German athletes competed at the Olympic Games as a single team again from 1992 onwards. Athletes from the Eastern part of Germany contributed disproportionately to the medals won by Germany, particularly in the first decade after reunification. This is thought to indicate that doping was not the only reason East Germany was so successful (and more successful than West Germany in particular) in the Olympics, with professional training conditions also being significant. The practice of doping was implemented by a separate state, a former rival who was far less successful. The medal tally of reunited Germany after 1990 was more comparable to that of East Germany before 1990 than of West Germany before 1990. For example, of the twenty nine medals won by Germany in the 2006 Winter Olympics, fourteen (six gold) have been by athletes born in East Germany (containing one-fifth of the population of Germany). Only nine medals (three gold) were won by athletes from West Germany, with six medals won in mixed teams. In recent years, some centers of German top-class sport have relocated to the West, for example Winter sports to Bavaria. However, the East is still performing better than the West. Trainers from East Germany (e.g. Uwe Müßiggang) were important in producing sporting success for United Germany. Also, many top-class German athletes who today live in the western part of Germany started their professional sport careers in the Eastern part, and can be seen as part of the large-scale exodus of young people from the East to the West since reunification.

Medal tablesEdit

See also: All-time Olympic Games medal count

Medals by Summer GamesEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze Total
1952 Helsinki did not participate
1956 Melbourne/Stockholm Part of the United Team of Germany
1960 Rome
1964 Tokyo
1968 Mexico City 9 9 7 25
1972 Munich 20 23 23 66
1976 Montreal 40 25 25 90
1980 Moscow 47 37 42 126
1984 Los Angeles did not participate
1988 Seoul 37 35 30 102
Total 153 129 127 409

Medals by summer sportEdit

Sport Gold Silver Bronze Total
Athletics 38 36 35 109
Swimming 38 32 22 92
Rowing 33 7 8 48
Canoeing 14 7 9 30
Gymnastics 6 13 17 36
Cycling 6 6 4 16
Boxing 5 2 6 13
Shooting 3 8 5 16
Wrestling 2 3 2 7
Diving 2 2 3 7
Sailing 2 2 2 6
Weightlifting 1 4 6 11
Judo 1 2 6 9
Football 1 1 1 3
Handball 1 1 1 3
Volleyball 0 2 0 2
Fencing 0 1 0 1
Total 153 129 127 409

Medals by Winter GamesEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze Total
1952 Oslo did not participate
1956 Cortina d'Ampezzo Part of the United Team of Germany
1960 Squaw Valley
1964 Innsbruck
1968 Grenoble 1 2 2 5
1972 Sapporo 4 3 7 14
1976 Innsbruck 7 5 7 19
1980 Lake Placid 9 7 7 23
1984 Sarajevo 9 9 6 24
1988 Calgary 9 10 6 25
Total 39 36 35 110

Medals by winter sportEdit

Sport Gold Silver Bronze Total
Luge 13 8 8 29
Speed skating 8 12 9 29
Bobsleigh 5 5 3 13
Biathlon 3 4 4 11
Figure skating 3 3 4 10
Nordic combined 3 0 4 7
Ski jumping 2 3 2 7
Cross-country skiing 2 1 1 4
Total 39 36 35 110

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. Tagliabue, John. - "Political Pressure Dismantles East German Sports Machine" - New York Times - February 12, 1991
  2. Janofsky, Michael. - "OLYMPICS; Coaches Concede That Steroids Fueled East Germany's Success in Swimming" - New York Times - December 3, 1991

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