The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially the XXII Olympic Winter Games, or the 22nd Winter Olympic Games, took place 7 to 23 February 2014, in Sochi, Russia, with some events held in the resort town of Krasnaya Polyana. Ninety-eight events in fifteen winter sports were held. Both the Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics were organized by the Sochi Organizing Committee (SOC).
Sochi was selected as the host city on July 4, 2007, during the 119th I.O.C. Session held in Guatemala City, defeating bids from Salzburg, Austria, and Pyeongchang, South Korea. The Sochi Olympics became the first Winter Olympics (and first Olympics altogether) for the Russian Federation, since the 1980 Summer Olympics were in Moscow when that was the capital of the Soviet Union.
Construction in preparation for the Games involved the building of new venues; and modernizing the telecommunications, electric power, and transportation systems of this area. These improvements included the construction of a new Olympic Park along the coast of the Black Sea in the Imeretin Valley, with several buildings clustered in that area. The venues in Krasnaya Polyana were new, also.
Bid and preparationsEdit
Sochi was elected on July 4, 2007, during the 119th International Olympic Committee (IOC) session held in Guatemala City, Guatemala. This will be the first time that the Russian Federation will host the Winter Olympics. The U.S.S.R. was the host of the 1980 Summer Olympics held in and around Moscow.
|2014 Winter Olympics bidding results|
|City||NOC Name||Round 1||Round 2|
| Funds approved|
from 2006 until 2014
|Year||Billions of rubles|
According to Sochi 2014 Olympic and Paralympic Organizing Committee President and CEO Dmitry Chernyshenko, the successful partnership and commercial programs allowed the use of funds generated by Sochi 2014 for the 2009–2010 development period, postponing the need for the state funds guaranteed by the Russian Government. He confirmed that the Organizing Committee successfully generated more than $500 million through the marketing program in the first five months of 2009.
Russia provides nearly 327 billion rubles (approximately US$9.964 billion) for the total development, expansion and hosting of the Games. 192.4 billion coming from the federal budget and 7.1 billion from the Krasnodar Krai budget and from the Sochi budget. The organizers expect to have a surplus of US$300 million when the Games conclude.
Financing from non-budget sources (including private investor funds) is distributed as follows:
- Tourist infrastructure – $2.6 billion
- Olympic venues – $500 million
- Transport infrastructure – $270 million
- Power supply infrastructure – $100 million
- Main article: Venues of the 2014 Winter Olympics
With an average February temperature of 8.3 °C (42.8 °F) and having a humid subtropical climate, Sochi is the warmest city to have ever hosted a Winter Olympic Games.
Sochi Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster)Edit
The Sochi Olympic Park was built by the Black Sea coast in the Imeretin Valley. All the venues are new. The venues were clustered around a central water basin on which the Medals Plaza was built. This provided a great compactness of the concept with the Olympic Stadium and all indoor venues of the Olympics gathered within walking distance.
- Bolshoy Ice Dome – ice hockey (final), 12,000 spectators
- Shayba Arena – ice hockey, 7,000 spectators
- Adler Arena Skating Center – speed skating, 8,000 spectators
- Iceberg Skating Palace – figure skating, short track speed skating, 12,000 spectators
- Ice Cube Curling Center – curling, 3,000 spectators
- Fisht Olympic Stadium – ceremonies (opening/closing) 40,000 spectators
- Main Olympic village
- International broadcasting centre and main press room
Tentative post-Olympic usageEdit
After the Olympics, a Formula One street circuit was planned for the site. The deal to hold the Russian Grand Prix was signed on 14 October 2010, and runs from 2014 to 2020. The first race was expected to take place after the Closing Ceremony of the Games, but the IOC has announced that the race will be delayed until 2015 if construction of the circuit interferes with preparations for the 2014 Olympics.
Krasnaya Polyana (Mountain Cluster)Edit
- Laura Biathlon & Ski Complex – Biathlon, Cross-country skiing
- Rosa Khutor Extreme Park – Freestyle skiing and Snowboarding
- Rosa Khutor Alpine Resort – Alpine skiing
- Sliding Center Sanki – Bobsleigh, Luge and Skeleton
- RusSki Gorki Jumping Center – Ski Jumping and Nordic combined (both Ski Jumping and Cross-country Skiing on a 2 km route around the arena)
- Rosa Khutor Plateau Olympic Village
Sochi 2014 will be the 12th straight Olympics to outlaw smoking. This means that all Sochi venues, Olympic Park bars and restaurants and public areas will be smoke-free during the Games.
Along with 2008 Russian presidential election, on 2 March 2008 there was an unofficial referendum held in Sochi to elect the mascot for the 2014 Winter Olympics. 270,000 voters along with their ballots received a coupon with four mascot candidates: Ded Moroz, a snowflake, a polar bear and a dolphin. According to a representative of Sochi city administration, the majority of Sochians voted for the dolphin. However, representatives of the Sochi Organizing Committee for the Games, which is to officially elect a logo and a mascot, commented that while respecting the opinion of Sochians, such a procedure is usually held later. They also pointed out, that the final version of the mascot should be a consensus of opinions of all citizens of the country and the result of work by professional designers and market analysts.
On 1 December 2009 the official 2014 Winter Olympic logo was released. International Olympic Committee President, Jacques Rogge, said of the logo: "It's very appealing. It's very creative, innovative. I think it will appeal especially to the young population."
There has been controversy over the announced mascots. The frog Zoich, which won the official online vote was inexplicably excluded by officials from the second round of voting. The ultimately selected mascots: a polar bear, snow hare, and snowboarding leopard (said to be Vladimir Putin's favorite) found only timid popular support.
Sochi 2014 is the only Olympic emblem to include a web address. The mirror of "Sochi" and "2014" 'reflects' that Sochi is a meeting point between sea and mountains. As the main component of the Sochi 2014 emblem, the Olympic rings sit large and in color to show that this is a symbol of progress for the Olympic Movement. The change of colours and inner design of the rest of the emblem encourages people to express themselves, with some expected to transform it using traditional images, while others will take an ultra-modern approach.
On 26 February 2011, at 11.20 pm (GMT+3) the final results of the public vote during the live television show "Talismaniya Sochi 2014 – The Final” were announced on the first Channel. The election council made the decision that the top-three characters with the maximum number of votes would all become the Olympic Winter Games mascots:
- the Polar Bear (by Oleg Serdechniy, Sochi),
- the European Hare (by Silviya Petrova, Chuvashia)
- the Amur Leopard (by Vadim Pak, Nakhodka)
Commenting on the results of the live vote, Dmitry Chernyshenko, President and CEO of the Sochi 2014 Organizing Committee, said:
«Today, the Sochi 2014 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games have adopted its own symbols and, for the first time in the history of the Olympic Movement, the whole country was involved in choosing the mascots. There are three mascots for the Olympic Winter Games, representing the three places on the Olympic podium. All top-three characters according to the Olympic system will become the Olympic Winter Games mascots. The mascots are the choice of the whole our country and will remain in the history of the Olympic movement».
The Olympic infrastructure is being constructed according to a Federal Target Program (FTP). In June 2009 the Games' organisers reported they are one year ahead in building the main Olympic facilities as compared to recent Olympic Games. In November 2011 IOC President Jacques Rogge was in Sochi and concluded that the city has made significant progress since he last visited eighteen months earlier.
According to the FTP, US$580 million will be spent on construction and modernization of telecommunications in the region. Avaya Inc, a global provider of business collaboration and communications solutions, has been named by the Sochi 2014 Organising Committee as the official supplier of telecom equipment for the 2014 Olympic Games. Avaya will be a part of the overall Games technology solutions group. Avaya will provide network, collaboration and communications equipment and work with other technology partners to provide athletes, dignitaries and fans worldwide a full communications experience around the Olympic Games.
Expected to be built:
- A network of TETRA mobile radio communications for 100 user groups (with capacity of 10,000 subscribers)
- 700 km of fiber-optic cables along the Anapa-Dzhubga-Sochi highways and Dzhubga-Krasnodar branch
- Digital broadcasting infrastructure, including radio and TV broadcasting stations (building and communications tower) with coverage from Grushevaya Polyana (Pear Glade) to Sochi and Anapa cities. The project also includes construction of infocommunications centre for broadcasting abroad via three HDTV satellites
During the Olympic Games, the telecommunications backbones of UTK, Rostelecom and TransTeleCom providers will be used.
The fiber-optic channel links Sochi between Adler and Krasnaya Polyana. The 46km long channel will enable videoconferencing and news reporting from the Olympics.
A five-year strategy for increasing power supply in the Sochi region was presented by Russian energy experts during a seminar on 29 May 2009, held by the Sochi 2014 Organizing Committee, and attended by International Olympic Committee (IOC) experts and officials from the Russian Ministry of Regional Development, the Russian Ministry of Energy, the State Corporation Olimpstroy and the Krasnodar Krai administration.
The event was a part of the Olympic Games Knowledge Management (OGKM) program by the IOC.
According to the strategy, the capacity of the regional energy network will increase by two and a half times by 2014, guaranteeing stable power supply during and after the Games.
Power demand of Sochi in the end of May 2009 was 424 MW. Power demand of the Olympic infrastructure is expected to be about 340 MW.
- Poselkovaya electrical substation became operational in early 2009
- Sochi thermal power station is being reconstructed (expected power output is 160 MW)
- Laura and Rosa Khutor electrical substations were completed in November 2010
- Mzymta electrical substation was completed in March 2011
- Krasnopolyanskaya hydroelectric power station was completed in 2010
- Adler Combined heat and power (CHP) station design and construction was completed in 2012. Expected power output is 360 MW
- Bytkha substation, under construction with two transformers 25 MW each, includes dependable microprocessor-based protection
Earlier plans also include building combined cycle (steam and gas) power stations near the cities of Tuapse and Novorossiysk and construction of a cable-wire powerline, partially on the floor of the Black Sea.
The transportation infrastructure being prepared to support the Olympics includes many roads, tunnels, bridges, interchanges, railroads and stations in and around Sochi.
The Sochi Light Metro is located between Adler and Krasnaya Polyana connecting the Olympic Park, the Adler-Sochi International Airport and the venues in Krasnaya Polyana.
The existing 102km Tuapse to Adler railroad would be renovated to provide double track throughout, increasing capacity and enabling a reliable regional service to be provided and extending to the airport. In December 2009 Russian Railways ordered 38 Siemens Mobility Desiro trains for delivery in 2013 for use during the Olympics, with an option for a further 16 which would be partly built in Russia.
Russian Railways has had gone to establish a high-speed Moscow-Adler link and a new railroad (more than 60 km long) passing by the territory of Ukraine.
At the Sochi airport, a new terminal has been built along a 3.5km runway extension, possibly overlapping Mzymta river. Backup airports will be built in Gelendzhik, Mineralnye Vody and Krasnodar by 2009.
At the Sochi sea port, a new offshore terminal 1.5km from the shore allows docking for cruise ships with capacities of 3000 passengers. The cargo terminal of the sea port is to be moved from the Sochi centre.
Road ways will be detoured, some going around the construction site and others being cut off.
In May 2009 Russian Railways started the construction of tunnel complex No.1 (the final total is six) on the combined road (automobile and railway) from Adler to Alpica Service Mountain Resort in Krasnaya Polyana region. The tunnel complex No.1 is located near Akhshtyr settlement in Adlersky City District, and includes:
- Escape tunnel, 2.25 km, completed in 2010
- Road tunnel, 2153 m, to be completed in Q1 2013
- One-track railway tunnel, 2473 m, to be completed in Q2 2013
Russian Railways president Vladimir Yakunin said the road construction will cost more than 200 billion rubles.
Federation Island will be built in the sea near the Lesser Akhun subdistrict of Khostinsky City District. The island will be shaped like the Russian Federation. It will hold hotels and offices.
Significant funds are being spent on construction of an advanced sewage treatment system in Sochi, designed by Olimpstroy. The system meets BREF standards and employs top available technologies for environment protection, including tertiary treatment with microfiltration.
On September 29, 2013, the Olympic torch was lit in Ancient Olympia, beginning a seven-day journey across Greece and on to Russia, then the torch relay started at Moscow on October 7, 2013 before passing 83 Russian cities and arriving at Sochi on the day of the opening ceremony, February 7, 2014. It is the longest torch relay in Olympic history, a 40,000-mile route that will pass through all regions of the country, from Kaliningrad in the west to Chukotka in the east.
Participating National Olympic CommitteesEdit
So far 88 nations have qualified at least one athlete.
During the Games some countries and continents will have a national house. These temporary meeting place for supporters, athletes and other followers will be located throughout Sochi and Adler.
|Netherlands||Olympic Parc||Holland Heineken House|||
Fifteen winter sport disciplines, organized as seven olympic sports, were included in the 2014 Winter Olympics. The three skating sports disciplines were: figure skating, speed skating, and short track speed skating. The six skiing sport disciplines were: alpine, cross-country skiing, freestyle, Nordic combined, Ski Jumping and snowboarding. The two bobsleigh sports disciplines are: bobsleigh and skeleton. The other four sports were: biathlon, curling, hockey, and luge. A total of twelve new events will be contested to make it the largest Winter Olympics to date.
On 6 April 2011, the IOC accepted a number of events that were submitted by their respective sports federations to be considered for inclusion into the official program of these Olympic Games. The events include:
Other events that were also considered to be included had their decision postponed for further study, however on 4 July 2011 the IOC announced that these events would be added to the program. These events were officially declared by Olympic Committee President Jacques Rogge on 5 July 2011.
Team alpine skiing was presented as a candidate for inclusion in the Olympic program but the Executive board of the IOC rejected this proposal. The International Ski Federation persisted with the nomination and this was considered. There were reports of Bandy potentially being added to the sports program, but the IOC rejected this request. Subsequently, the international governing body, Federation of International Bandy, decided to have Sochi host the 2014 Bandy World Championships during the Olympics.
On 28 November 2006, the Executive Board of the IOC decided not to include the following sports in the review process of the program.
- All dates are Moscow Time (MSK) UTC+4
Concerns and controversiesEdit
There have been controversies and concerns affecting the upcoming Winter Olympics. The major disputes are with Circassians, environmental and economic issues, lack of political stability and governance and the LGBT rights in Russia athletes, supporters and journalists. The 2014 Winter Olympics will be the most expensive games in history, with an estimated cost of $50 billion. Much of the cost overruns have been blamed on corruption.
- ↑ Pinsent, Matthew. "Sochi 2014: A look at Russia's Olympic city", BBC News, 15 October 2011. Retrieved on 15 October 2011.
- ↑ 2014 Winter Olympic Games bids. GamesBids. Retrieved on 2 April 2007.
- ↑ Sochi Elected as Host City of XXII Olympic Winter Games International Olympic Committee, 4 July 2007
- ↑ http://www.webcitation.org/5xFvf0ufx
- ↑ InterfaxTemplate:Fix
- ↑ Sochi 2014 Confirms Ability to Self-finance in 2009–10 Sochi 2014, 2 June 2009
- ↑ Sochi 2014 Expects $300 Million Surplus GamesBids.com, 14 October 2011
- ↑ Experts analyzed which industries are most interested in Sochi OlympicsTemplate:Fix Rosbalt.biz, 6 July 2007
- ↑ Vancouver Olympics: Embarrassed Russia looks to 2014 Sochi Olympics The Christian Science Monitor, 1 March 2010
- ↑ Sochi's mixed feelings over Olympics BBC News, 26 November 2008
- ↑ Russian Deputy PM leads Sochi delegation to inspect Munich Olympic Park Inside the Games, 22 May 2010
- ↑ Посмотрели свысока Yugopolis, 16 July 2013
- ↑ «Fisht» Olympic Stadium Sochi 2014; Accessed 31 December 2010
- ↑ Korsunskaya, Darya, Gennady Fydorov, Alan Baldwin. "Sochi to host Russian GP from 2014–2020", 14 October 2010. Retrieved on 20 October 2010.
- ↑ "IOC threatens to postpone Russian Grand Prix", GP Update, 13 January 2011. Retrieved on 6 April 2012.
- ↑ Rio Golf Course; Women's World Cup; IOC Nominee for Japan? – No Smoking in Sochi Around the Rings, 14 July 2011
- ↑ Sochi People Want a Dolphin to Become the Mascot of the Games RIA Novosti
- ↑ 2014 Winter Olympics Mascot Should Appear Not Earlier Than 2011 RIA Novosti
- ↑ Unique Digital Olympic Emblem Revealed by Sochi 2014 for Russia’s First Winter GamesTemplate:Fix Sochi 2014 Olympic Committee 1 December 2009
- ↑ Medvedev tries on first Sochi 2014 T-shirt RT, 2 December 2009
- ↑ Mario & Sonic at the Sochi Winter Games & 3rd Sonic Nintendo Exclusive Revealed. Anime News Network.
- ↑ Five Mascots Selected for Sochi 2014 Sochi2014.com, 26 February 2011
- ↑ Russia prepares for Olympic Games 2014 faster than scheduledTemplate:Fix ITAR-TASS, 27 June 2009
- ↑ IOC Head Praises Sochi 2014 GamesBids.com, 24 November 2011
- ↑ Сочи-2014 выходит на связь Открытые системы, 2007
- ↑ Fiber-optic communications in Olympic Sochi Mayak Radio, 28 March 2008Template:Fix
- ↑ Games 2014 Will Double Sochi Power SupplyTemplate:Fix Sochi 2014, 29 May 2009
- ↑ Gazprom launches construction of Adler CHPS Gazprom, 28 September 2009
- ↑ The power capacities of the Sochi region will increase before the Olympics by a factor of four RBC, 6 July 2007
- ↑ Sochi opens new rail line for 2014 Winter Olympics Inside the Games, 17 February 2012
- ↑ Siemens signs Russian Olympic train order Railway Gazette International, 1 January 2010
- ↑ Expensive road to the Olympics Gudok, 22 August 2007
- ↑ Runway in Sochi airport will cross the river YuGA.ru, 8 July 2007
- ↑ Russia to build 3 reserve airports in country's south by 2009 RIA Novosti, 7 July 2007
- ↑ Offshore terminal will be built at the Sochi sea portTemplate:Fix KM.ru, 7 July 2007
- ↑ Sochi authorities close the entrance to the cityTemplate:Fix DP.RU, 8 October 2007
- ↑ Russian Railways started mountain tunnel complex construction from Sochi to Krasnaya PolyanaTemplate:Fix Interfax, 27 May 2009
- ↑ Russian Railways President Yakunin sums up investment programme for first 7 months of 2011. Russian Railways. Retrieved on 17 August 2011.Template:Fix
- ↑ Sochi is not a place for recreation Gazeta.ru, 5 July 2007
- ↑ Construction of the first olympic hotel starts in Sochi RIA Novosti, 7 August 2007
- ↑ Russia will get new lands before the OlympicsTemplate:Fix DP.RU, 18 September 2007
- ↑ Arabians will own 70% of the island in SochiTemplate:Fix DP.RU, 24 September 2007
- ↑ Minister of Natural Resources held a meeting on design and construction of sewage treatment facilities in preparation for 2014 Olympics in Sochi Press Service of the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russian Federation, 13 July 2009
- ↑ "Holland Heineken House finds home at Sochi 2014 after deal extended", insidethegames.biz, 24 July 2013. Retrieved on 2 August 2013.
- ↑ 45.0 45.1 Rogge announces three new disciplines for Sochi 2014. Russia Today. TV-Novosti (5 July 2011). Retrieved on 6 July 2011.
- ↑ Women's Ski Jumping gets 2014 Sochi Olympics go-ahead BBC Sport, 6 April 2011
- ↑ Slopestyle given Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics go-ahead BBC Sport, 5 July 2011
- ↑ FIS Congress 2010 Decisions. FIS-Ski. Retrieved on 23 March 2011.
- ↑ Russian ice hockey will be skating in Sochi. Infox.ru. AktivMedia (7 June 2010). Retrieved on 23 March 2011.
- ↑ It's Not Hockey, It's Bandy NYTimes.com, 29 January 2010
- ↑ No time to relax! The show must go on...again! Eastbourne Herald, 9 March 2010
- ↑ ЧМ по хоккею с мячом 2014 года пройдет в Сочи, во время ОИ gazeta.ru, 23 January 2009
- ↑ 53.0 53.1 Olympic Programme Updates. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee (28 November 2006). Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved on 20 August 2008.
- ↑ No Olympics for Ski Mountaineering. The Mountain World. Retrieved on 2 April 2012.
- ↑ No inclusion of ski orienteering in the IOC review process for 2014. International Orienteering Federation. Retrieved on 2 April 2012.
- ↑ Johnson, Ted. "Russia’s Anti-Gay Laws Present Challenge for NBC’s Olympics Coverage", 24 July 2013. Retrieved on 25 July 2013.
- ↑ Fierstein, Harvey. "Russia’s Anti-Gay Crackdown", 21 July 2013. Retrieved on 25 July 2013.
- ↑ "The Sochi Olympics: Castles in the sand", Economist.com, 2013-07-13. Retrieved on 2013-08-08.
61. Translation Facts you should know about the Winter Olympics 2014 Storify Retrieved on 20 February 2014.
- Sochi 2014 IOC Page
- International Olympic Committee
- Olimpstroy state corporation
- Galina Masterova Sochi: an Olympic makeover Russia Now, 23 February 2010
- Athletes - Athletes from these games.
- Events - Sochi 2014 events.
- Venues - Venues used for these games.