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Template:SBSnav s-start is the initial component in a template series for succession boxes. It replaces the previous formats for succession tables but still allows for most of their use indirectly. In the new format, every succession box begins with s-start, and thus it is an essential component of the new system. If you find a succession template not in this standard, please contact WikiProject Succession Box Standardization.

The purpose of this page is to document the whole succession system based on s-start and to provide instructions for the correct creation and editing of succession boxes. The page is divided into three large sections: the first one provides a brief overview of the succession templates and an explanation of the function of parameters; the second one gives instructions for the creation of succession boxes; the third section goes further into detail about the succession templates and gives examples of their use. Complete examples of succession boxes of varying complexity are given in the end.

Templates examined in this pageEdit

Template s-start is to be used with the rest of the succession templates. The following is a list of all succession templates, with the exception of headers:

The first five items on the list are the most basic for the creation of succession boxes and the most heavily used throughout Wikipedia; the others (with the exception of s-hou and s-line) are used as substitutes for one of the first five, depending on the circumstances.

Note that s-line is not currently described in this page, something that will, however, change in the future.

A list of the templates and all their parameters, along with basic information about the use of each template and parameter, can be found in SBS's Cheatsheet.

ParametersEdit

Most templates work in the same way: the template's name is written between double curly brackets, and the text or code of the template appears in the page. A basic difference of succession templates is that most of them require the editor to include names, titles, or other text that will be displayed in the boxes, and which is different every time.

Such text is inserted into the templates by means of parameters, fields separated from the template name and from each other with pipes ( | ). The function of parameters is to alter the appearance of the cells created by these templates, usually by adding specially formatted text or changing the text already present. Although some parameters simply accept the desired text and are told apart by their place within the template, many parameters have names, separated from the text by an equal sign ( = ); while in the first case empty parameters must still be included if before one with text, many (but not all) named parameters can be omitted if they are not used, irrespective of their position. Furthermore, some named parameters do not require text at all; the simple inclusion of their name will activate a feature of the template. Blank spaces may be inserted between the text and the pipes, equal signs, and double curly brackets, but this is not necessary and can sometimes even be confusing.

In the following example, "s-vac" is the name of the template, "abeyance" is a parameter without any text but its name, and "last" is a parameter with both a name and text, in this case enclosed in double square brackets (thus wiki-linked).

{{s-vac|abeyance|last=[[George Smith]]}}

Most succession templates accept parameters; the inclusion of some of them is essential for the correct function of the templates, while the inclusion of others is optional. The only templates from the list of the previous section that do not accept any parameters are s-start/start and end/s-end. Most of the header templates, however, are also used without parameters.

There are various types of parameters. There are parameters that allow for the inclusion of names, titles, and dates, both obligatory and optional. The row parameter allows for the creation of complex tables and is described lower in this page. And the title parameters change the text normally appearing in s-new, s-inc, and s-vac.

Instructions for useEdit

There are many types of succession boxes, as the combinations of the various templates previously mentioned are virtually endless. We shall begin by demonstrating the use of simple boxes, and proceed with the analysis of more complex boxes of many lines and multiple titles.

Simple boxesEdit

The very purpose of a succession box is to show the place of the subject of the box (the person—or other entity—whose article the box is in) in a succession of people (henceforth referred to as a succession chain). Because of this, most boxes include three people, namely the subject, their predecessor, and their successor.

The quintessential succession box consists of three cells, which go from left to right in the same order that the three persons' terms succeeded each other: the left cell names the predecessor, the middle one names the title of the subject and the years that mark their term in an office (the person's name is already mentioned in the article's title and is thus not repeated here), and the right one names the successor.

Simply enough, the creation of a box follows the same order. First comes the predecessor (template s-bef), the title and years follow (template s-ttl), and then comes the successor (template s-aft). It should not be forgotten, of course, that every succession box opens with the s-start template, and ends with the end template. Each command should be given its own line in the edit box.

Have a look at this diagram.

Enter the start field so that the program recognises the table:
{{s-start}}
Enter the name of the predecessor:
{{s-bef|before=[[Enter predecessor here]]}}
Enter the title of the person on whose page you are working:
{{s-ttl|title=[[Enter title here]]
Also, enter the years during which they held that title (not necessarily in a different line):
|years=Enter start date here – Enter end date here}}
Enter the name of the successor:
{{s-aft|after=[[Enter successor here]]}}
Once everything is done, type:
{{s-end}}

This is an example of the technique, taken from the article of Henry VIII of England. Writing...

{{s-start}}
{{s-bef|before=[[Henry VII of England|Henry VII]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[List of English monarchs|King of England]]
|years=22 April 1509 – 28 January 1547}}
{{s-aft|after=[[Edward VI of England|Edward VI]]}}
{{s-end}}

...will produce this:

Preceded by
Henry VII
King of England
22 April 1509 – 28 January 1547
Succeeded by
Edward VI

Note that the names of the predecessor and the successor and the name of the title are enclosed within double square brackets; this allows for the names in the box to link to their respective articles. Although it is strongly suggested that you do link the names in the boxes even if they do not have their own article at the time (resulting in a red link), there can be exceptions (see SBS's Guidelines for more details).

It is encouraged that you include the title-holder's dates of term or reign whenever possible; if a date is dubious or disputed, use the s-ref template to include references that will back up that date (see the relevant section for details). Please do not link the dates except in a limited number of cases, which are described in the Guidelines page.

Advanced boxesEdit

Many people, like monarchs and prime ministers, active businesspeople, prominent scientists and talented athletes have held multiple offices and/or titles in their life. As it would be unwieldy to create separate boxes for all these titles, we include all of them in a single succession box. Thus, each article has one box at the bottom, which is easier to manage and more aesthetically pleasing.

In some cases, succession boxes consist of many separate rows that are made up of the previous section's simple boxes, and thus their creation follows more or less the same rules; the only difference is that special care should be given to the placement and relative order of said simple boxes, as well as to the inclusion Template:s-break (talk, links, edit) (a template version of "|-") between the lines where necessary.

On other occasions, a person might inherit more than one title from a single individual, and/or pass multiple titles on to one person. The several separate crowns of the Commonwealth Realms, held by the same Queen, are one good example (see Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom). It is also possible that someone might take over an office from two different people who had held it jointly until then, or join several different titles into one that will be inherited by a single heir.

For these, and other scenarios, it is possible to create succession boxes that can clearly show those connections by making use of the advanced features of the hereinbefore presented succession template model. The system for the advanced boxes is slightly different from the simple forms demonstrated in the previous section, and it relies heavily on the Template:s-break (talk, links, edit) template, as well as on the correct counting of the rows.

Counting the rowsEdit

Basically, the format is the following: if a box is taking up more than one rows of the table, it can be specified how many rows exactly that will be by inserting a row parameter immediately after the template name (s-... field) and before every other parameter. That can be done by typing:

{{s-...|row=Insert number of rows here|...}}

The number corresponds to the number of rows this name or title overlaps in regard to the other rows, as opposed to denoting a specific height for a cell. In other words, if, for example, all three cells of a line were given a "rows=2" parameter, the box would appear as if none of these cells was assigned a rows parameter at all, the comparative heights of these cells to one another being identical.

The titles in succession boxes are usually listed in the order of the granting of the title—beginning with the oldest titles held—but other schemes exist as well. All notable successive titles should be noted, though titles tied together permanently can be listed in the same cell and some subsidiary titles may be omitted altogether. (See the Guidelines for more details.)

Template:s-break (talk, links, edit) (the "|-" character) Edit

In the past using "|-" was fine. However, to improve the layout of PDF and books, please use Template:s-break (talk, links, edit) instead and replace any instance of "|-" you see by "Template:s-break (talk, links, edit)".

In theory, it is necessary for the box to work to place "|-" between every line of the box, even if every cell is restricted to its own line. However, "|-" is already imbedded into most of the templates, so it is no longer necessary to add it to boxes that consist of simple one-row lines, with the exceptions of templates Template:s-vac (talk, links, edit) and Template:s-non (talk, links, edit): if a line ends with one of these templates, you need to place this character or the computer will not recognize a new row. Similarly, if a line begins with Template:s-vac (talk, links, edit), the character must be placed before that row.

Still, things are different with more complex tables that incorporate multiple-row cells covering more than one lines each. Complex patterns are created and it is not always easy for the computer to display all the lines correctly. This is why Template:s-break (talk, links, edit) is so important in these cases, and although its placement is unneeded between many of the lines, it is much more preferable to use it redundantly in a table than to create a non-functional box, where it will often be difficult to locate the mistake.

That said, and even though it is a safe option to place Template:s-break (talk, links, edit) between every pair of lines in a box, it is naturally better to avoid such practices to the extent this is possible. Here follow a few simple tips that can limit its redundant usage to a minimum without leading to mistakes:

  • When considering the placement of Template:s-break (talk, links, edit), it is important to note the presence or absence of succession templates in a line. That is, a template for a multiple-line cell is always placed at the line from which the cell starts, therefore that line has a template for that cell while the other lines that share the cell do not. As a result, a line from which multi-line cells begin but into which no cell continues from a higher line has templates for all three cells and there is not any need to place the character before it unless this is necessitated by the presence of a s-vac or s-non template.
In the following example, note the lack of Template:s-break (talk, links, edit) between the first and the second line and, more importantly, between the fourth and fifth lines:
{{s-start}}
{{s-bef|before}}
{{s-ttl|title=|years=}}
{{s-aft|after=}}
{{s-bef|rows=2|before=}}
{{s-ttl|title=|years=}}
{{s-aft|rows=3|after=}}
{{s-break}}
{{s-ttl|title=|years=}}
{{s-break}}
{{s-bef|before=}}
{{s-ttl|title=|years=}}
{{s-bef|before=}}
{{s-ttl|title=|years=}}
{{s-aft|after=}}
{{s-end}}
  • When only the predecessor cell of a line stretches between the line in question and a previous one (it does not matter whether it continues into a lower line), Template:s-break (talk, links, edit) needs not be inserted between that line and the previous one. Similarly, if only the successor cell covers multiple lines and begins in a line above the one in question, then the Template:s-break (talk, links, edit) that could follow the concerned line's s-ttl parameter can be omitted. And the situation is even easier with a multi-row title cell (a rarer occurrence), as it is usually not directly affected by line changes. Generally, it is easier for the computer to separate the lines when only one template is missing from a row's three.
  • Always use the preview button before saving. If you are not certain about the inclusion of a Template:s-break (talk, links, edit), you can try removing it and then previewing the page; if a succession box has an error, that will generally be readily visible. Keep in mind that each line in a box ought to have three cells, each line and column should align perfectly, and the two side columns should have the same width, which normally is slightly smaller than that of the middle column (a 3 to 4 ratio).

Have a look at the following example. In its first iteration (left), Template:s-break (talk, links, edit) is used to separate every line from its previous and next ones. In its second version (right), Template:s-break (talk, links, edit) is used only as many times as it is necessary for the box to work properly: none. The result is exactly the same in both cases, and can be seen below the code.

Template:Col-break
{{s-start}}
{{s-bef|before=Mary}}
{{s-ttl|rows=2|title=President of the Balkans|years=1982–1992}}
{{s-aft|after=William}}
{{s-break}}
{{s-bef|rows=2|before=Nicholas}}
{{s-aft|after=William}}
{{s-break}}
{{s-ttl|title=King of New Zealand|years=1990–1997}}
{{s-aft|after=Helen}}
{{s-break}}
{{s-bef|before=Richard}}
{{s-ttl|title=King of Southeast Asia|years=1990–present}}
{{s-inc|rows=2|heir=Lee}}
{{s-break}}
{{s-bef|before=George}}
{{s-ttl|title=Governor of Borneo|years=2003–present}}
{{s-end}}
Template:Col-break
{{s-start}}
{{s-bef|before=Mary}}
{{s-ttl|rows=2|title=President of the Balkans
|years=1982–1992}}
{{s-aft|after=William}}
{{s-bef|rows=2|before=Nicholas}}
{{s-aft|after=Edgar}}
{{s-ttl|title=King of New Zealand
|years=1990–1997}}
{{s-aft|after=Helen}}
{{s-bef|before=Richard}}
{{s-ttl|title=King of Southeast Asia
|years=1990–present}}
{{s-inc|rows=2|heir=Lee}}
{{s-bef|before=George}}
{{s-ttl|title=Governor of Borneo
|years=2003–present}}
{{s-end}}
Preceded by
Mary
President of the Balkans
1982–1992
Succeeded by
William
Preceded by
Nicholas
Succeeded by
Edgar
King of New Zealand
1990–1997
Succeeded by
Helen
Preceded by
Richard
King of Southeast Asia
1990–present

Template:S-inc

Preceded by
George
Governor of Borneo
2003–present

Analysis of succession templatesEdit

Here follows a detailed description of the succession templates, with information about the circumstances in which they are used and examples of their use in succession boxes. The five basic templates are not included, as their function is standard (see previous section) and their parameters are documented separately lower in this page.

The templates are analysed in sections according to their place in succession boxes.

Predecessor/successor templatesEdit

These are the templates that are used to substitute s-bef and/or s-aft when a box documents a succession different from the usual format of "predecessor-subject-successor", like at the beginning or end of a succession chain and at a vacancy. The templates in this category are four: s-new, s-non, s-inc, and s-vac.

S-newEdit

S-new is used instead of s-bef to signify the beginning of a new succession chain, where there is no predecessor before the subject for a specific title. Titles can be created any time and for any reason: along with the birth of new states, in times of governmental reform, and at the creation of new political parties, educational institutions, electoral districts/constituencies, or other foundations or entities.

Simply using {{s-new}} will produce a plain "New title" cell. Using parameters can change this title: "creation" produces a "New creation" cell instead of the "New title" one, "party" produces a "New political party" one, etc. (see the template page for an exhaustive list). There is also a "reason" parameter, which gives the option of entering the reason behind the title's creation, using a short sentence.

Here follow three examples of the usage of Template:S-new, taken from the articles of Alfred Deakin, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, and Robert Walpole respectively:

{{s-start}}
{{s-new}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Attorney General of Australia]]|years=1901–1903}}
{{s-aft|after=[[James Drake]]}}
{{s-new|creation}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Earl of Shaftesbury]]|years=1672–1683}}
{{s-aft|after=[[Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 2nd Earl of Shaftesbury|Anthony Ashley-Cooper]]}}
{{s-new|first|reason=None recognized before}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Prime Minister of Great Britain]]|years=4 April 1721 – 11 February 1742}}
{{s-aft|after=[[Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington|The Earl of Wilmington]]}}
{{s-end}}

Which will appear like this:

Template:S-newTemplate:S-newTemplate:S-new
Attorney General of Australia
1901–1903
Succeeded by
James Drake
Earl of Shaftesbury
1672–1683
Succeeded by
Anthony Ashley-Cooper
Prime Minister of Great Britain
4 April 1721 – 11 February 1742
Succeeded by
The Earl of Wilmington

S-nonEdit

S-non is the opposite of s-new: it is used to signal the conclusion of a chain of succession, replacing s-aft in the box's successor cell. All titles at one time or another expire, become extinct, are abolished, or otherwise fall in disuse, and those that have not yet met such a fate will undoubtedly do so in the future.

As the reasons for the end of a title are more numerous and possibly more difficult to describe than those for its creation, s-non is an open template, allowing for the insertion of practically any message (using the "reason" parameter, which cannot be omitted). It is preferable, however, that these messages are as short as possible, and there are many such labels whose usage is dictated by guidelines, like "Extinct" and "Merged in the Crown" for peerages, "Office abolished" for offices, and "District eliminated" for electoral districts.

S-non must be followed by a |- character in complex tables, or error might occur in the display of these succession boxes. The use of this character is not necessary if a reason is given, as the use of a reason incorporates the use of the | character. The very first and last lines of each table (counting headers and other templates) are also excepted, as it is not necessary to add the character before the first line and after the last one.

Here follow three examples of the usage of Template:S-non, taken from the articles of Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater, and John Quincy Adams respectively:

{{s-start}}
{{s-bef|before=[[Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell|The Viscount Wavell]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Governor-General of India|Viceroy of India]]|years=1947}}
{{s-non|reason=Office abolished}}
{{s-bef|before=[[John Egerton, 2nd Duke of Bridgewater|John Egerton]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Duke of Bridgewater|Earl of Bridgewater]]|years=1748–1803}}
{{s-non|reason=Extinct}}
{{s-bef|before=[[James L. Hodges]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=Member from [[Massachusetts's 12th congressional district]]|years=1833–1843}}
{{s-non|reason=District eliminated}}
{{s-end}}

Which will appear like this:

Preceded by
The Viscount Wavell
Viceroy of India
1947

Template:S-non

Preceded by
John Egerton
Earl of Bridgewater
1748–1803

Template:S-non

Preceded by
James L. Hodges
Member from Massachusetts's 12th congressional district
1833–1843

Template:S-non

S-incEdit

S-inc is used instead of s-aft to show that the subject is the current holder of a title, and that for this reason there is no successor to the title for the duration of the subject's term. There are incumbents for all succession chains that have not already ended, with the exception of those currently vacant.

One will normally use the proper s-inc template, {{s-inc}}, which will produce a simple "Incumbent" cell. There are two parameters that can change this title when it is inappropriate: "recent" produces a "Most recent" cell, suitable for the latest awards and election candidacies, and "current" produces a "Current holder" cell, fit for holders of records and trophies. Along with the aforementioned ones, there is the "heir" parameter, which allows one to include the name of the incumbent's heir (if any), as well as the "heir-type" parameter, where an heir's specific title or status can be stated (usually "Heir apparent" or "Heir presumptive").

Here follow three examples of the usage of Template:S-inc, taken from the articles of Angela Merkel, John McCain, Juan Carlos I of Spain, and Fedor Emelianenko respectively:

{{s-start}}
{{s-bef|before=[[Gerhard Schröder]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Chancellor of Germany (Federal Republic)|Chancellor of Germany]]|years=2005–present}}
{{s-inc}}
{{s-bef|before=[[George W. Bush]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[List of United States Republican Party presidential tickets|Republican Party presidential candidate]]|years=[[United States presidential election, 2008|2008]]}}
{{s-inc|recent}}
{{s-break}}
{{s-vac|last=[[Alfonso XIII of Spain|Alfonso XIII]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[List of Spanish monarchs|King of Spain]]|years=22 November 1975 – present}}
{{s-inc|heir=[[Felipe, Prince of Asturias|Crown Prince Felipe]]}}
{{s-new|Championship}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[World Alliance of Mixed Martial Arts#Current Champions|WAMMA Heavyweight Champion]]|years=July 19, 2008 – present}}
{{s-inc|current}}
{{s-end}}

Which will appear like this:

Preceded by
Gerhard Schröder
Chancellor of Germany
2005–present

Template:S-inc

Preceded by
George W. Bush
Republican Party presidential candidate
2008

Template:S-inc Template:S-break Template:S-vac

King of Spain
22 November 1975 – present

Template:S-inc Template:S-new

WAMMA Heavyweight Champion
July 19, 2008 – present

Template:S-inc

S-vacEdit

S-vac may be used in place of either s-bef or s-aft (or both in the same line), and its purpose is to indicate breaks in succession chains, primarily vacancies. A vacancy is a length of time during which a title is unoccupied—for monarchs, such periods are known as interregna. Vacancies occur to most offices, although it should be noted that the short period that often passes between the end of the previous holder's term and the election/appointment of the next holder does not count as a vacancy.

There are two basic versions for s-vac, each of which requires a parameter. The version for the predecessor cell uses a "last" parameter, where the name of the title's holder before the vacancy can be filled, while the version for the successor cell uses the parameter "next". Furthermore, there are title parameters that change the message displayed ("Vacant"), depending on the specific circumstances: "commission" produces an "In commission" label and "suspended" produces a "Suspended" one, to furnish two examples (see the template page for an exhaustive list).

Apart from the standard edition of s-vac, there is also a pair of versions for the cases where title holders are unknown, and thus there are again missing links in the chains of succession, even though the titles were actually occupied at those times. In these occasions, the "last" and "next" parameters are replaced with "unknlast" and "unknnext" respectively, while the "unknown" title parameter ought to be used. This way readers can navigate unobstructed along even incomplete succession chains.

For all four versions there is also an optional "as" parameter, for changes of title names (see the relevant section lower in this page), as well as a "reason" parameter (preferably only used for vacancies), where a brief explanation for the vacancy can be entered.

Note that s-vac must in every event be preceded (when a predecessor cell) or followed (when a successor cell) by a |- character in succession boxes, because serious errors can occur in the display of these boxes if the character is omitted. The very first and last lines of each table (counting headers and other templates) are excepted, as it is not necessary to add the character before the first line and after the last one.

Here follow four examples of the usage of Template:S-vac, taken from the articles of Charles, Prince of Wales, Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington, Charles I of England, and Winston Churchill respectively:

{{s-start}}
{{s-vac|last=[[Edward VIII of the United Kingdom|Edward]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Prince of Wales]]|years=26 July 1958 – present}}
{{s-inc|heir=[[Prince William, Duke of Cambridge|William]]}}
{{s-bef|before=[[Thomas Trevor, 1st Baron Trevor|The Lord Trevor]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Lord Privy Seal]]|years=1730}}
{{s-vac|commission|next=[[William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire|The Duke of Devonshire]]}}
{{s-break}}
{{s-bef|before=[[James I of England|James I/VI]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[List of English monarchs|King of England]]|years=27 March 1625 – 30 January 1649}}
{{s-vac|next=[[Charles II of England|Charles II]]|reason=[[English Commonwealth]]}}
{{s-break}}
{{s-vac|unknown|unknlast=[[Herbert Henry Asquith]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Rector of the University of Aberdeen]]|years=1914–1918}}
{{s-aft|after=[[Weetman Pearson, 1st Viscount Cowdray|The Viscount Cowdray]]}}
{{s-end}}

Which will appear like this:

Template:S-vac
Prince of Wales
26 July 1958 – present

Template:S-inc

Preceded by
The Lord Trevor
Lord Privy Seal
1730

Template:S-vac Template:S-break

Preceded by
James I/VI
King of England
27 March 1625 – 30 January 1649

Template:S-vac Template:S-break Template:S-vac

Rector of the University of Aberdeen
1914–1918
Succeeded by
The Viscount Cowdray

Titles and officesEdit

The only title cell template other than s-ttl is s-tul and it is used for titular titles or titles held in pretence. For other forms and functions of s-ttl, see the "Additional features" section.

S-tulEdit

S-tul is used instead of s-ttl to signify that a title (usually a regnal one) is held by a person, but the power normally associated with it is not. This may take two forms: titular rulers and pretenders.

  • Titular rulers are people who legitimately deserve a title yet are somehow incapable of securing it, as in the case of Louis XVII of France, heir to the throne during the early years of the French Revolution. Generally, a titular ruler's title will again be inherited by someone with power and remains only temporarily suspended. There is generally only one titular claimant to a title.
  • Pretenders are people who may or may not have a rightful claim to a title, but regardless do not possess any legitimate authority. Perhaps the most famous pretenders were Prince James Francis Edward Stuart and his son, Bonnie Prince Charles, who were respectively known to the Jacobites as James III and VIII and Charles III but nicknamed by others the Old Pretender and the Young Pretender. While James Stuart was the legitimate heir to his father, the Glorious Revolution irrevocably overruled that power in favour of his half-sister. Therefore, he lost his legitimacy to govern but still claimed his hereditary titles, as did his son. Pretenders are not always successive, as titular leaders generally are, and there can be multiple pretenders at the same time (as in France's Legitimists and Orleanists).

S-tul is used for the above described cases because of its basic difference from s-ttl: the word "Titular" appears above the title in the displayed cell, and there are formatting differences as well. Apart from the obligatory "title" parameter and the optional but basic "years" parameter (as well as the omnipresent "rows" parameter), this template accepts no parameters.

Here follows one example of the usage of Template:S-tul, taken from the article of Nicholas II of Russia:

{{s-start}}
{{s-new|loss}}
{{s-tul|title=[[List of Russian rulers|Tsar of Russia]]|years=15 March 1917 – 17 July 1918}}
{{s-vac|next=[[Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovich of Russia|Cyril Vladimirovitch]]}}
{{s-end}}

Which will appear like this:

Template:S-newTemplate:S-tulTemplate:S-vac

Additional featuresEdit

As the purpose of succession boxes is to succinctly convey useful information to the readers, there exist parameters that allow the introduction of data into the boxes beyond the already examined capabilities of the succession templates. In particular, there are eleven parameters: the "as" parameter, which is used in predecessor and successor cells, and the "regents" family along with the "alongside", "lords", and "creation" and "dynasty" parameters for the title cell. All of them are optional.

"As" parameterEdit

The parameter as, which can be found in the s-bef, s-aft, and s-vac templates, is used to inform the reader of a change in the title's name from the previous or next holder. In these cases, even though the title retains more or less the same power and the succession chain is not interrupted, the title's name is different. As readers might be confused to see the title suddenly change during the course of a succession chain, the "as" parameter is used to prepare them for the impending change in both directions, added to both the succession box before and the one after the name change.

Please note that certain changes in title names, like the inclusion in a title of "Queen" instead of "King", or that of other gender-specific words, need not be clarified with the "as" parameter.

Here follows a pair of examples of the usage of the "as parameter", taken from the articles of Louis XVIII of France and Napoleon I of France:

{{s-start}}
{{s-bef|before=[[Napoleon I of France|Napoléon I]]|as=[[List of French monarchs|Emperor of the French]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[List of French monarchs|King of France]] and [[List of Navarrese monarchs|Navarre]]|years=6 April 1814 – 20 March 1815}}
{{s-aft|after=[[Napoleon I of France|Napoléon I]]|as=[[List of French monarchs|Emperor of the French]]}}
{{s-bef|before=[[Louis XVIII of France|Louis XVIII]]|as=King of France and Navarre}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[List of French monarchs|Emperor of the French]]|years=1 March 1815 – 22 June 1815}}
{{s-aft|after=[[Napoleon II of France|Napoléon II]]}}
{{s-end}}

Which will appear like this:

Preceded by
Napoléon I
as Emperor of the French
King of France and Navarre
6 April 1814 – 20 March 1815
Succeeded by
Napoléon I
as Emperor of the French
Preceded by
Louis XVIII
as King of France and Navarre
Emperor of the French
1 March 1815 – 22 June 1815
Succeeded by
Napoléon II

"Regents" parameterEdit

This is a group of six parameters, which are used exclusively in s-ttl in order to indicate regencies and other joint occupations of offices and titles. This characterisation applies to occupation of the very same office, and not of similar ones (as is the case with parliamentary seats—see the next section on the "alongside" parameter). Each cell supports up to three regents, whose names can be inserted into parameters "regent1", "regent2", and "regent3" respectively; if there are less than three regents only the first one or two parameters need be used.

For each of the regents there is a corresponding parameter for the years during which they held the office jointly with the subject: "years1", "years2", and "years3". If a regent held the title during the entire term of the subject, however, no years are necessary. The order of the regents should be chronological, with the one assuming the office earlier coming first; if a regent held the office throughout the subject's term (no regency dates), that regent ought to have precedence.

Here follows one example of the usage of the "regents" parameter:

{{s-start}}
{{s-bef|before=Insert predecessor here}}
{{s-ttl|title=Insert title of person here|years=Insert years here ::<nowiki>|regent1=Enter name or title of first (or only) regent|years1=Enter first regent's years}}
|regent2=Enter name of title of second regent|years2=Enter second regent's years}}
|regent3=Enter name or title of third regent|years3=Enter third regent's years}}
{{s-aft|after=Insert successor here}}
{{s-end}}

Which looks like:

Preceded by
Philip
Queen of Antarctica
1889–1914
with Philip (1889–1897)
Anthony (1889–1895)
Elizabeth (1895–1897)
Succeeded by
Margaret

"Alongside" parameterEdit

The purpose of the "alongside" parameter, used in the s-ttl template, is to show that the subject has served in a parliament or congress for the same constituency, district, state, or other kind of electoral division, as long as that division traditionally elects between two and four representatives. The ultimate number of names that is filled in the parameter is equal to, or greater than, the number of the seats in the district in question minus one, and greatly depends on the length of the subject's term. There are no years for this parameter, and the names are only separated by commas; line breaks (<br />) can be used to improve the box's layout.

Here follows one example of the usage of the "alongside" parameter, taken from the article of John F. Kennedy:

{{s-start}}
{{s-bef|before=[[Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[List of United States Senators from Massachusetts|Senator from Massachusetts (Class 1)]]|years=January 3, 1953 – December 22, 1960|alongside=[[Leverett Saltonstall]]}}
{{s-aft|after=[[Benjamin A. Smith]]}}
{{s-end}}

Which looks like:

Preceded by
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
Senator from Massachusetts (Class 1)
January 3, 1953 – December 22, 1960
Served alongside: Leverett Saltonstall
Succeeded by
Benjamin A. Smith

"Lords" parameterEdit

The "lords" parameter (again, only found in s-ttl) shows that a person is a member of the House of Lords, and gives the years for which that membership lasted. These years are entered into the "lords" parameter, and their inclusion is compulsory if the parameter is to be used. As all peers in the peerages of England, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom were automatically entitled to a seat in the Lords before the 1999 reform of the House, the years of their membership were usually contemporaneous with those of their holding the peerage titles granting them their seats, and thus the "lords" parameter can be omitted for subjects whose most senior titles belonged to one of the three aforementioned peerages. On the other hand, the parameter is useful for:

  • representative peers
  • peers who lost their seats in the Lords in 1999
  • peers whose most senior titles were in the peerages of Scotland or Ireland and whose seats in the Lords were held through one of their junior titles (before 1999)
  • Bishops of the Church of England entering the Lords after 1999 (with the exception of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York and the Bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester, who are ex officio members of the House of Lords)

Here follow four examples of the usage of the "lords" parameter, taken from the articles of John Spencer-Churchill, 11th Duke of Marlborough, Alexander Scrymgeour, 12th Earl of Dundee, Charles Alan Andrew Cathcart, 7th Earl Cathcart, and Kenneth William Stevenson respectively:

{{s-start}}
{{s-bef|before=[[John Spencer-Churchill, 10th Duke of Marlborough|John Spencer-Churchill]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Duke of Marlborough (title)]]|years=1972–present|lords=1972–1999}}
{{s-aft|after=[[Jamie Spencer-Churchill, Marquess of Blandford|Charles Spencer-Churchill]]}}
{{s-bef|before=[[Alan Cathcart, 6th Earl Cathcart|Alan Cathcart]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Earl Cathcart]]|years=1999–present|lords=2007–present}}
{{s-inc}}
{{s-bef|before=Timothy John Bavin]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Bishop of Portsmouth]]|years=1995–present|lords=2005–present}}
{{s-inc}}
{{s-end}}

Which will appear like this:

Preceded by
John Spencer-Churchill
Duke of Marlborough (title)
1972–present
Member of the House of Lords
(1972–1999)

Template:S-inc

Preceded by
Henry Scrymgeour-Wedderburn
Earl of Dundee
1983–present
Member of the House of Lords
(1983–present)

Template:S-inc

Preceded by
Alan Cathcart
Earl Cathcart
1999–present
Member of the House of Lords
(2007–present)

Template:S-inc

Preceded by
Timothy John Bavin
Bishop of Portsmouth
1995–present
Member of the House of Lords
(2005–present)

Template:S-inc

"Creation" parameter, "dynasty" parameterEdit

"Creation" and "dynasty" constitute a pair of parameters identical in appearance, though somewhat different in purpose, currently the newest ones in template s-ttl. The "creation" parameter helps keep track of peerage successions for titles created multiple times; "xth creation" ought to be filled in the parameter for every box in the specific chain, and creation parameters should be used for all creations of the same title. The "dynasty" parameter gives information of more complementary nature, mainly designed for Egyptian Pharaohs.

Here follows an example of the usage of the "creation" parameter, taken from the article of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland:

{{s-start}}
{{s-new|creation}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Duke of Northumberland]]|creation=1st creation|years=1551–1553}}
{{s-non|reason=Forfeit}}
{{s-end}}

Which will appear like this:

Template:S-new
Duke of Northumberland
1st creation
1551–1553

Template:S-non

HeadersEdit

Headers are coloured horizontal bars that help categorise offices and titles in succession boxes. Each header is placed above one or more succession lines of the same type (more specifically, the type given in the header), effectively organising the boxes. Each header has a different colour, something which eases navigation in large succession boxes. Another characteristic that aids quick navigation is that the headers (and the succession lines beneath them) are placed in a specific order (found in SBS's Guidelines page).

Apart from lessening the feeling of confusion large succession boxes tend to create to the reader, headers also provide useful disambiguation information by naming specific legislative bodies, religions, peerages etc. to which the titles below these headers belong. This can be done by using parameters, each producing a different variant of the basic template created by the unparametered header templates, with the same colour but different, though similar, text. Parameters also create headers for different subtypes of offices which are not populous enough as categories to allow for separate header templates.

The following table lists all the header succession templates, showing each header and the wiki-code that produces it; for headers that are specialised by parameters, both the proper header and an example of a specialised one are shown. More information about their proper usage can be found in the relevant section of the Guidelines page. Exhaustive lists of the templates' parameters, along with examples of their use, can be found in each template's individual documentation page, which can be accessed from the links in this list.


Template:S-aca
Template:s-aca (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-ach

Template:s-ach (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-ach

{{s-ach|aw}}

Template:S-bus

Template:s-bus (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-civ

Template:s-civ (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-civ

{{s-civ|pol}}

Template:S-court

Template:s-court (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-culture

Template:s-culture (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-dip

Template:s-dip (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-edu

Template:s-edu (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-gov

Template:s-gov (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-herald

Template:s-herald (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-hon

Template:s-hon (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-legal

Template:s-legal (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-lit

Template:s-lit (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-media

Template:s-media (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-mil

Template:s-mil (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-npo

Template:s-npo (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-npo

{{s-npo|mason}}

Template:S-off

Template:s-off (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-other

Template:s-other (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-par

Template:s-par (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-par

{{s-par|uk}}

Template:S-ppo

Template:s-ppo (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-pre

Template:s-pre (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-prec

Template:s-prec (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-prec

{{s-prec|uk}}

Template:S-reg

Template:s-reg (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-reg

{{s-reg|fr}}

Template:S-rel

Template:s-rel (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-rel

{{s-rel|or}}

Template:S-roy

Template:s-roy (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-roy

{{s-roy|sc}}

Template:S-sports

Template:s-sports (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-sports

{{s-sports|gaa}}

Template:S-wea

Template:s-wea (talk, links, edit)

Template:S-wea

{{s-wea|glo}}

Other optional templatesEdit

Apart from the headers, there are two more templates whose inclusion in succession boxes is not necessitated by any technical restrictions, but they convey useful information and their usage may be required by guidelines. As of February 2008, these templates are s-hou and s-ref, but more might be added in the future.

S-houEdit

S-hou generates a cell with royal house information for use in the boxes of all members of royal families. This cell tops the succession box and covers its entire width, and it establishes which royal house the subject belongs to, as well as provides basic information about the subject, namely their name and title, their birth date, and (if applicable) their death date. It may also name the older house from which the aforementioned house is a cadet branch of, if such information exists.

Template s-hou is written right after the s-start template, and the data is inserted into nameless parameters—save for one which does have a name ("name"). The structure is the following:

{{s-hou|1|2|3|4|5|6|name=7}}

Each number corresponds to the type of information that goes into the specific field, according to the list that follows:

  1. The royal house to which the subject belongs
  2. The date of the subject's birth (if known)
  3. The year of the subject's birth (if known)
  4. The date of the subject's death (if any, and known)
  5. The year of the subject's death (if any, and known)
  6. The royal house that the above house is descended from (if any, and known)
  7. The name (and title) of the subject, in case that the correct form is different from the article title

The fields for which there is no available information may be left blank, and any blank fields that happen to be at the end of the template can be omitted overall. However, an unknown birth or death year (but not a missing date with a known year) should be indicated with the word "Unknown", unless both years are unknown, in which case they should both be left blank, resulting in the date line not appearing at all. The death date and year should be left completely blank if the subject is living, so that the death information will not appear.

Also, there is no point whatsoever in including s-hou in the succession box if the royal house is not known. Finally, the "name" parameter should only be used if the article's title, which normally appears in the cell's first line, is different from the correct name and/or title of the subject. As the very last field in the template, it should be omitted instead of blanked if its use is unnecessary.

Template:s-hou (with others)

{{s-start}}
{{s-hou|Enter name of house|Day and month of birth|Year of birth|Day and month of death|Year of death|Parent house|Alternative name}}
{{s-bef|before=Insert predecessor here}}
{{s-ttl|title=Insert title here|years=Insert start date here – Insert end date here}}
{{s-aft|after=[[Insert successor here]]}}
{{s-end}}

Which will look similar to this:

Template:S-hou
Preceded by
Albert
King of Greenland
1972–1987
Succeeded by
Francois

S-refEdit

Template s-ref exists to provide notes and references related to the information in succession boxes. On one hand, citing sources is becoming increasingly important in Wikipedia, and succession boxes are no exception; references from outside Wikipedia ought to be given for the successions and dates stated in the boxes wherever possible. On the other hand, explanations are often necessary for some of the more unusual events documented in succession boxes, and giving them in the main body of the boxes rather than at their end can create some very unwieldy configurations of footnotes and annotations that do not aid standardisation in the least.

S-ref supports up to ten sources/notes, which are entered as follows:

{{s-ref|Enter source/note 1 here|Enter source/note 2 here|Enter source/note 3 here| ... |Enter source/note 10 here}}

Only use as many fields as is necessary in each box. It is very important to note that s-ref already incorporates the function of template end, and it is thus unnecessary to use {{s-end}} to close a succession box when s-ref is used.

The notes and sources in s-ref are automatically numbered; they ought to be listed in the template with the order in which the information sourced, or to which the notes refer, is encountered in the box. The resulting numbers should be superscript next to the names, titles, and/or dates to which they refer—to do that, enclose a number in <sup> tags like this: <sup>2</sup>. (For numbers 1 to 3 one may also use the characters provided in the symbol box under the edit window.)

Sources should be written according to the instructions found in Wikipedia:Citing sources, and care should be taken to write notes clearly enough to be useful, but also succinctly and without taking up too much space and cluttering the box.

Complete exampleEdit

Using the rows feature of the templates, very advanced tables can be created to help in situations with people who hold many posts, especially British Prime Ministers. The following is a hypothetical chart with at least one use of all the forms above:

Template:S-houTemplate:S-regTemplate:S-newTemplate:S-vac
Queen of India
1972–1983
with Michael (1972–1975)
Succeeded by
Arnold
Preceded by
Elizabeth
Lady Supreme of Oceana
1975–1983

Template:S-vac Template:S-break

Empress of Arabia
1975–1993

Template:S-non Template:S-break

Grand Duchess of Europa
1975–1999
Succeeded by
Felicia
Chief Sultana of Africa
1993–1999

Template:S-break Template:S-new

Great Khanna of Asia
1993–present

Template:S-inc Template:S-break

Preceded by
Diane

Template:S-tul Template:S-ref

See alsoEdit

cy:Nodyn:Dechrau-bocs dv:Template:S-start fr:Modèle:Start box id:Templat:S-start lt:Šablonas:S-startpt:Predefinição:S-start sk:Šablóna:S-start sl:Predloga:S-začetek tr:Şablon:S-startur:سانچہ:S-start

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