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[[Image:2008 Olympic Torch Relay, London AB2.JPG|thumb|right|The 2008 Olympic Torch in London]]
 
[[Image:2008 Olympic Torch Relay, London AB2.JPG|thumb|right|The 2008 Olympic Torch in London]]
The '''[[2008 Summer Olympics]] [[Olympic Flame|Torch Relay]]''' will run until [[August 8]], [[2008]], prior to the [[2008 Summer Olympics|Games of the XXIX Olympiad]]. Plans for the relay were announced on [[April 26]], [[2007]], in [[Beijing]], [[China]].<ref name="IOC torch">{{cite news |date=[[2007-04-26]] |title=Beijing 2008: BOCOG Announces Olympic Torch Relay Route |url=http://www.olympic.org/uk/news/olympic_news/full_story_uk.asp?id=2147 |publisher=[[International Olympic Committee]] |accessdate=2007-04-26}}</ref> The relay, with the theme "Journey of Harmony", is expected<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/09/world/09torch.html?_r=1&ex=1365393600&en=2c75ea71d3f9215b&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&oref=slogin|title=Officials Expect Olympic Torch to Continue on Route}}</ref> to last 129 days and carry the torch 137,000 km (85,000 mi) — the longest distance of any Olympic torch relay since the [[National Socialist German Workers' Party]] started the tradition at the [[1936 Berlin Olympics]].
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The '''[[2008 Summer Olympics]] [[Olympic Flame|Torch Relay]]''' will run until August 8, 2008, prior to the [[Beijing 2008|Games of the XXIX Olympiad]]. Plans for the relay were announced on April 26, 2007, in [[Beijing]], [[China]].<ref name="IOC torch">{{cite news |date=2007-04-26 |title=Beijing 2008: BOCOG Announces Olympic Torch Relay Route |url=http://www.olympic.org/uk/news/olympic_news/full_story_uk.asp?id=2147 |publisher=[[International Olympic Committee]] |accessdate=2007-04-26}}</ref> The relay, with the theme "Journey of Harmony", is expected<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/09/world/09torch.html?_r=1&ex=1365393600&en=2c75ea71d3f9215b&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&oref=slogin|title=Officials Expect Olympic Torch to Continue on Route}}</ref> to last 129 days and carry the torch 137,000 km (85,000 mi) — the longest distance of any Olympic torch relay since the National Socialist German Workers' Party started the tradition at the [[Berlin 1936|1936 Berlin Olympics]].
   
After being lit at the birthplace of the [[Olympic Games]] in [[Olympia, Greece]] on [[March 24]], the torch traveled to the [[Panathinaiko Stadium]] in [[Athens]], and then to Beijing, arriving on [[March 31]]. From Beijing, the torch is following a route passing through six [[continents]]. The torch will visit cities along the [[Silk Road]], symbolizing ancient links between China and the rest of the world. The relay also included an ascent with the flame to the top of [[Mount Everest]] on the border of [[Nepal]] and [[Tibet Autonomous Region|Tibet]], [[China]] from the Chinese side, which was closed specially for the event.<ref name="BOCOG relay">{{cite news |publisher=[[BOCOG]] |url=http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/news/headlines/n214042288.shtml |title=Beijing 2008 Olympic Torch Relay Planned Route and Torch Design unveiled |date=[[2007-04-26]] |accessdate=2007-04-26}} See also: [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/World/No_change_in_Tibet_torch_rally_route/articleshow/2939244.cms 'No change in Tibet torch rally route'], ''[[Times of India]]'', Retrieved on [[10 April]] [[2008]].</ref>
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After being lit at the birthplace of the [[Olympic Games]] in [[Olympia, Greece]] on March 24, the torch traveled to the [[Panathinaiko Stadium]] in [[Athens]], and then to Beijing, arriving on March 31. From Beijing, the torch is following a route passing through six continents. The torch will visit cities along the Silk Road, symbolizing ancient links between China and the rest of the world. The relay also included an ascent with the flame to the top of Mount Everest on the border of Nepal and [[Tibet Autonomous Region|Tibet]], [[China]] from the Chinese side, which was closed specially for the event.<ref name="BOCOG relay">{{cite news |publisher=BOCOG |url=http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/news/headlines/n214042288.shtml |title=Beijing 2008 Olympic Torch Relay Planned Route and Torch Design unveiled |date=[[2007-04-26]] |accessdate=2007-04-26}} See also: [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/World/No_change_in_Tibet_torch_rally_route/articleshow/2939244.cms 'No change in Tibet torch rally route'], ''Times of India'', Retrieved on 10 April 2008.</ref>
   
In many cities along the route, the torch relay has been met by [[protesters]] representing a range of political issues, particularly those related to [[Human rights in the People's Republic of China|China's human rights record]], the [[2008 Tibetan unrest|recent unrest in Tibet]], the [[war in Darfur]], China's support to regimes in [[Myanmar]] and [[Zimbabwe]], [[North Korean defectors]], territorial disputes over the [[Spratly Islands|Spratly]] and [[Paracel Islands]] with [[Vietnam]], [[Falun Gong|Falun Gong persecution]] and the [[political status of Taiwan]], resulting in violence at various locations. These protests, which ranged from tens of thousands of people in [[San Francisco]],<ref>[http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2008/04/10/torch/ Olympic torch San Francisco | Salon News<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> to effectively none in [[Pyongyang]], have forced the path of the torch relay to be changed or shortened on a number of occasions. The [[Olympic_Flame#Extinguishing_the_Flame|torch was extinguished]] by Chinese security officials several times during the [[Paris]] leg for security reasons.<ref name="MsmbcParis">
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In many cities along the route, the torch relay has been met by protesters representing a range of political issues, particularly those related to China's human rights record, the struggle for freedom in Tibet, the genocide in Darfur, China's support to dictatorships in Myanmar and Zimbabwe, North Korean defectors, territorial disputes over the Spratly and Paracel Islands with Vietnam, Falun Gong persecution and the political status of Taiwan, resulting in violence at various locations. These protests, which ranged from tens of thousands of people in San Francisco,<ref>[http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2008/04/10/torch/ Olympic torch San Francisco | Salon News<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> to effectively none in Pyongyang, have forced the path of the torch relay to be changed or shortened on a number of occasions. The torch was extinguished by Chinese security officials several times during the Paris leg for security reasons.<ref name="MsmbcParis">
 
{{cite news
 
{{cite news
 
| title = Paris protests force cancellation of torch relay.
 
| title = Paris protests force cancellation of torch relay.
| publisher = [[msnbc.com]]
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| publisher = msnbc.com
 
| date = 2008-04-07
 
| date = 2008-04-07
 
| url = http://nbcsports.msnbc.com/id/23978408/
 
| url = http://nbcsports.msnbc.com/id/23978408/
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</ref>
 
</ref>
   
The protests in [[Europe]] were described as "despicable" by the [[Government of the People's Republic of China|Chinese government]], condemning them as "deliberate disruptions...who gave no thought to the Olympic spirit or the laws of [[United Kingdom|Britain]] and [[France]]" and who "tarnish the lofty Olympic spirit", and vowed they would continue with the relay and not allow the protests to "impede the Olympic spirit"<ref>[http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSPEK13147120080408?feedType=RSS&feedName=topNews China condemns "despicable" torch disruptions], Reuters. April 7, 2008.</ref>. Large-scale counter-protests by [[overseas Chinese]] and foreign-based Chinese [[Nationality|nationals]] became prevalent in later segments of the relay.
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The protests in Europe were described as "despicable" by the Chinese government, condemning them as "deliberate disruptions...who gave no thought to the Olympic spirit or the laws of Britain and France" and who "tarnish the lofty Olympic spirit", and vowed they would continue with the relay and not allow the protests to "impede the Olympic spirit"<ref>[http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSPEK13147120080408?feedType=RSS&feedName=topNews China condemns "despicable" torch disruptions], Reuters. April 7, 2008.</ref>. Large-scale counter-protests by overseas Chinese and foreign-based Chinese nationals became prevalent in later segments of the relay.
   
Prompted by the chaotic torch relays in Europe and [[North America]], the president of the [[International Olympic Committee]], [[Jacques Rogge]] described the situation as a "[[crisis]]" for the organization and stated that any athletes displaying [[Flag of Tibet|Tibetan flags]] at Olympic venues could be expelled from the games,<ref>[http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,23524747-5014197,00.html IOC flags athlete free speech dilemma], The Australian. April 12, 2008.</ref><ref>[http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/11/world/asia/11china.html?_r=1&oref=slogin Olympic Official Calls Protests a ‘Crisis’], ''The New York Times''. April 11, 2008.</ref> though he stopped short of cancelling the relay altogether despite calls to do so by some IOC members<ref>[http://www.usatoday.com/sports/olympics/2008-04-08-torch-relay_N.htm IOC mulls cancellation of torch relay], ''USAToday''. April 8, 2008.</ref>. The outcome of the relay will likely influence the IOC's decision on whether or not to scrap global relays in future editions of the games.<ref>[http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/PoliticsNation/IOC_mulls_abandoning_international_routes_in_future/articleshow/2934402.cms IOC mulls abandoning international routes in future], The Economic Times. April 8, 2008.</ref>
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Prompted by the chaotic torch relays in Europe and North America, the president of the [[International Olympic Committee]], [[Jacques Rogge]] described the situation as a "crisis" for the organization and stated that any athletes displaying the Flag of Tibet at Olympic venues could be expelled from the games,<ref>[http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,23524747-5014197,00.html IOC flags athlete free speech dilemma], The Australian. April 12, 2008.</ref><ref>[http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/11/world/asia/11china.html?_r=1&oref=slogin Olympic Official Calls Protests a ‘Crisis’], ''The New York Times''. April 11, 2008.</ref> though he stopped short of cancelling the relay altogether despite calls to do so by some IOC members<ref>[http://www.usatoday.com/sports/olympics/2008-04-08-torch-relay_N.htm IOC mulls cancellation of torch relay], ''USAToday''. April 8, 2008.</ref>. The outcome of the relay will likely influence the IOC's decision on whether or not to scrap global relays in future editions of the games.<ref>[http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/PoliticsNation/IOC_mulls_abandoning_international_routes_in_future/articleshow/2934402.cms IOC mulls abandoning international routes in future], The Economic Times. April 8, 2008.</ref>
   
In June 2008, the Beijing Games' Organizing Committee announced that the planned international torch relay for the [[2008 Summer Paralympics|Paralympic Games]] had been cancelled. The Committee stated that the relay was being cancelled to enable the Chinese government to "focus on the rescue and relief work" following the [[2008 Sichuan earthquake|Sichuan earthquake]].<ref>[http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-06/25/content_8436905.htm "International torch relay for Beijing Paralympic Games cancelled"], Xinhua, June 25, 2008</ref>
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In June 2008, the Beijing Games' Organizing Committee announced that the planned international torch relay for the Paralympic Games had been canceled. The Committee stated that the relay was being canceled to enable the Chinese government to "focus on the rescue and relief work" following the Sichuan earthquake.<ref>[http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-06/25/content_8436905.htm "International torch relay for Beijing Paralympic Games cancelled"], Xinhua, June 25, 2008</ref>
   
   
 
==Relay elements==
 
==Relay elements==
 
'''Torch'''<BR />
 
'''Torch'''<BR />
[[Image:Official 2008 Summer Olympics Torch in Vilnius.jpg|thumb|right|2008 Olympic Torch on display in [[Vilnius]], [[Lithuania]].]]
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[[Image:Official 2008 Summer Olympics Torch in Vilnius.jpg|thumb|right|2008 Olympic Torch on display in Vilnius, [[Lithuania]].]]
 
{{main|Olympic Flame}}
 
{{main|Olympic Flame}}
The Olympic Torch is based on traditional scrolls and uses a traditional Chinese design known as "Lucky Cloud". It is made from aluminum. It is 72 centimetres high and weighs 985 grams. The torch is designed to remain lit in 65 [[Kilometres per hour|kilometre per hour]] winds, and in rain of up to 50 millimetres per hour.<ref>[http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/news/headlines/image07/s214233067/n214233090.shtml The Beijing Olympic Torch], The Official Website of the 2008 Summer Olympics Torch Relay </ref> An ignition key is used to ignite and extinguish the flame. The torch is fueled by cans of [[propane]]. Each can will light the torch for 15 minutes.<ref> [http://www1.appledaily.atnext.com/template/apple/art_main.cfm?iss_id=20080409&sec_id=4104&subsec_id=11866&art_id=10966042 示威不斷 聖火難傳 境外是否續運 奧委周五定奪], Apple Daily.</ref> It is designed by a team from [[Lenovo Group]]. The Torch is designed in reference to the traditional Chinese concept of the [[Wu Xing|5 elements]] that make up the entire universe.
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The Olympic Torch is based on traditional scrolls and uses a traditional Chinese design known as "Lucky Cloud". It is made from aluminum. It is 72 centimetres high and weighs 985 grams. The torch is designed to remain lit in 65 kilometre per hour winds, and in rain of up to 50 millimetres per hour.<ref>[http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/news/headlines/image07/s214233067/n214233090.shtml The Beijing Olympic Torch], The Official Website of the 2008 Summer Olympics Torch Relay </ref> An ignition key is used to ignite and extinguish the flame. The torch is fueled by cans of propane. Each can will light the torch for 15 minutes.<ref> [http://www1.appledaily.atnext.com/template/apple/art_main.cfm?iss_id=20080409&sec_id=4104&subsec_id=11866&art_id=10966042 示威不斷 聖火難傳 境外是否續運 奧委周五定奪], Apple Daily.</ref> It is designed by a team from Lenovo Group. The Torch is designed in reference to the traditional Chinese concept of the 5 elements that make up the entire universe.
   
 
<BR />'''Lanterns'''<BR />
 
<BR />'''Lanterns'''<BR />
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<BR />'''Aircraft'''<BR />
 
<BR />'''Aircraft'''<BR />
Internationally, the torch and its accompanying party travels in a chartered [[Air China]] [[Airbus A330]] (registered B-6075), painted in the red and yellow colours of the Olympic Games.<ref>[http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=4614004&page=1 Olympic Torch Emits 5,500&nbsp;Tons of CO2], [[American Broadcasting Company|ABC]] News (April 9, 2008).</ref><ref name="airchina">[http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS157413+18-Mar-2008+PRN20080318 Air China Successfully Wins the Title of 'Designated Olympic Torch Carrier'], Reuters (March 18, 2008).</ref> Air China was chosen by the Beijing Committees of the Olympic Game as the designated Olympic torch carrier in March, 2008 for its long-standing participation in the Olympic cause. The plane will travel a total of 85077 mi (136 918 km)for a duration of 130 days through 21 countries and regions.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.businesswire.com/portal/site/home/news/sections/?ndmViewId=news_view&newsLang=en&newsId=20080407005431|title=Air China Carries the Olympic Torch around the Globe}}</ref><ref name="airchina"/>
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Internationally, the torch and its accompanying party travels in a chartered Air China Airbus A330 (registered B-6075), painted in the red and yellow colours of the Olympic Games.<ref>[http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=4614004&page=1 Olympic Torch Emits 5,500&nbsp;Tons of CO2], ABC News (April 9, 2008).</ref><ref name="airchina">[http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS157413+18-Mar-2008+PRN20080318 Air China Successfully Wins the Title of 'Designated Olympic Torch Carrier'], Reuters (March 18, 2008).</ref> Air China was chosen by the Beijing Committees of the Olympic Game as the designated Olympic torch carrier in March, 2008 for its long-standing participation in the Olympic cause. The plane will travel a total of 85,077 mi (136,918 km)for a duration of 130 days through 21 countries and regions.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.businesswire.com/portal/site/home/news/sections/?ndmViewId=news_view&newsLang=en&newsId=20080407005431|title=Air China Carries the Olympic Torch around the Globe}}</ref><ref name="airchina"/>
   
 
<BR />'''Route'''<BR />
 
<BR />'''Route'''<BR />
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[[Image:Beijing 2008 Torch Relay Route (China).png|left|thumb|2008 Torch Relay in China]]
 
[[Image:Beijing 2008 Torch Relay Route (China).png|left|thumb|2008 Torch Relay in China]]
 
[[Image:Beijing 2008 Torch Relay Route.png|350px|right|thumb|2008 Olympic Torch Relay. The original Taiwan route shown in red.]]
 
[[Image:Beijing 2008 Torch Relay Route.png|350px|right|thumb|2008 Olympic Torch Relay. The original Taiwan route shown in red.]]
The announced route will carry the torch through six continents from March 2008 to May 2008 to August 2008. The planned route originally included a stop in [[Taipei]] between [[Ho Chi Minh City]] and [[Hong Kong]], but there was disagreement in Beijing and Taipei over language used to describe whether it was an international or a domestic part of the route. While the Olympic committees of China and Chinese Taipei reached initial consensus on the approach, the government of the [[Republic of China]] in [[Taiwan]] intervened, stating that this placement could be interpreted as placing [[Taiwan]] on the same level as [[Hong Kong]] and [[Macau]], an implication it objected to. The Beijing Organizing Committee attempted to continue negotiation,<ref name="USA relay">{{cite news |publisher=[[USA Today]] |title=Taiwan rejects China's torch relay plans |url=http://www.usatoday.com/sports/olympics/summer/2007-04-26-china-torch-taiwan-tibet_N.htm |date=[[2007-04-26]] |accessdate=2007-04-26}}</ref> but further disputes arose over the placement and usage of the [[Flag of the Republic of China|flag]] or the [[National Anthem of the Republic of China|anthem]] of the [[Republic of China]] along the 24&nbsp;km torch route in Taiwan.<ref name="Taiwanreject">{{cite web|url=http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2007/09/12/2003378404|title=Editorial: New Olympic event: Torch tug-of-war|publisher=[[Taipei Times]]}}</ref> As of the midnight deadline for concluding the negotiation on [[September 21]], 2007, Taiwan and China were unable to come to terms with the issue of the Torch Relay. In the end, both sides of the [[Taiwan Strait]] decided to eliminate the Taipei leg.<ref name="VoANewsTorchRelayTaiwan">{{cite web|url=http://www.voanews.com/english/2007-09-21-voa11.cfm|title=Taiwan, China Fail to Reach Agreement on Olympic Torch Route}}</ref>
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The announced route will carry the torch through six continents from March 2008 to May 2008 to August 2008. The planned route originally included a stop in Taipei between Ho Chi Minh City and Hong Kong, but there was disagreement in Beijing and Taipei over language used to describe whether it was an international or a domestic part of the route. While the Olympic committees of China and Chinese Taipei reached initial consensus on the approach, the government of the [[Republic of China]] in [[Taiwan]] intervened, stating that this placement could be interpreted as placing [[Taiwan]] on the same level as [[Hong Kong]] and [[Macau]], an implication it objected to. The Beijing Organizing Committee attempted to continue negotiation,<ref name="USA relay">{{cite news |publisher=USA Today |title=Taiwan rejects China's torch relay plans |url=http://www.usatoday.com/sports/olympics/summer/2007-04-26-china-torch-taiwan-tibet_N.htm |date=2007-04-26 |accessdate=2007-04-26}}</ref> but further disputes arose over the placement and usage of the flag or the anthem of the [[Republic of China]] along the 24&nbsp;km torch route in Taiwan.<ref name="Taiwanreject">{{cite web|url=http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2007/09/12/2003378404|title=Editorial: New Olympic event: Torch tug-of-war|publisher=[[Taipei Times]]}}</ref> As of the midnight deadline for concluding the negotiation on [[September 21]], 2007, Taiwan and China were unable to come to terms with the issue of the Torch Relay. In the end, both sides of the Taiwan Strait decided to eliminate the Taipei leg.<ref name="VoANewsTorchRelayTaiwan">{{cite web|url=http://www.voanews.com/english/2007-09-21-voa11.cfm|title=Taiwan, China Fail to Reach Agreement on Olympic Torch Route}}</ref>
 
==Sequence of events==
 
===International leg===
 
'''Greece''': On [[March 24]], [[2008]], the [[Olympic Flame]] was ignited at [[Olympia, Greece|Olympia]], [[Greece]], site of the [[Ancient Olympics]]. The actress [[Maria Nafpliotou]], in the role of a High Priestess, ignited the torch of the first torchbearer, a silver medalist of the [[2004 Summer Olympics]] in [[taekwondo]] [[Alexandros Nikolaidis]] from [[Greece]], who handed the flame over to the second torchbearer, Olympic champion in women's [[breaststroke]] [[Luo Xuejuan]] from [[PRC|China]].<ref>[http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/ceremonies/greece/news/n214279617.shtml Olympic Flame begins relay in Greece] at the Official Website of the Torch Relay</ref>
 
Following the recent [[2008 Tibetan unrest|unrest in Tibet]], three members of [[Reporters Without Borders]], including [[Robert Ménard]],<ref> {{cite web|url=http://www.lemonde.fr/actualite-medias/article/2008/04/08/robert-menard-le-grain-de-sable-des-jo_1032280_3236.html| title="Robert Ménard, le grain de sable des JO"|publisher=[[Le Monde]]|date=2008-04-08}}</ref> breached security and attempted to disrupt a speech by Liu Qi, the head of Beijing's Olympic organising committee during the torch lighting ceremony in [[Olympia, Greece]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.smh.com.au/olympic-flame-begins-journey-to-china/20080324-219l.html|title=Olympic flame begins journey to China}} See also: {{cite web|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/25/wchina125.xml|title=Demonstrators disrupt Olympic torch lighting}} and {{cite web |title= Protests disrupt Olympic torch ceremony|url=http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/03/24/torch.relay/index.html}}</ref> The People's Republic of China called this a "disgraceful" attempt to sabotage the Olympics.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.smh.com.au/torch-protest-disgraceful-says-china/20080325-21h7.html|title=Torch protest 'disgraceful', says China}} See also: {{cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7312073.stm|title=China raps Olympic torch protest}}</ref> On [[30 March]] [[2008]] in Athens, during ceremonies marking the handing over of the torch from Greek officials to organizers of the Beijing games, demonstrators shouted 'Free Tibet' and unfurled banners; some 10 of the 15 protesters were taken into police detention.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/31/world/30cnd-greece.html?hp|title=Tibet Protesters Try to Disrupt Olympic Ceremony}}</ref> After the hand-off, protests continued internationally, with particularly violent uprisings in Nepal.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/violence-in-nepal-as-tibet-protest-mars-handover-of-olympic-torch-802732.html|title=Violence in Nepal as Tibetans protest Olympics}}</ref> Although RWB claims independence, it is reported to have received funding from the [[France|French]] Government and groups funded by the [[USA|American]] government,<ref name=Junqua> Daniel Junqua, [http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2007/08/A/15044 Reporters sans frontières], ''[[Le Monde diplomatique]]'', August 2007 </ref> and Taiwan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs.<ref>http://www.rsf-chinese.org/spip.php?article59 rsf-chinese about page, paragraph 14</ref> However, Daniel Junqua, the vice-president of the French section of RWB, claims that the funding does not compromise RWB's impartiality.<ref name=Junqua />
 
 
<BR />
 
'''China''': In China, the torch was welcomed by Chinese legal chief [[Zhou Yongkang]] and State Councilor [[Liu Yandong]]. It was subsequently passed onto [[Hu Jintao]], the President. A call to boycott French hypermart [[Carrefour]] from [[1 May]] began spreading through mobile [[text messaging]] and online chat rooms amongst the Chinese over the weekend from [[12 April]], accusing the company's major shareholder, the [[LVMH]] Group, of donating funds to the [[Dalai Lama]].<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.guardian.co.uk/feedarticle?id=7463240 | title = Chinese demand Carrefour boycott for Tibet "support" | publisher = guardian.co.uk | date = 2008-04-15 | accessdate = 2008-04-19 }}</ref> There were also calls to extend the boycott to include French luxury goods and cosmetic products.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.shanghaidaily.com/sp/article/2008/200804/20080415/article_355955.htm | title = Carrefour boycott drive widens | publisher = ShanghaiDaily.com | date = 2008-04-15 | accessdate = 2008-04-19 }}</ref> According to the ''[[Washington Times]]'' on April 15, however, the Chinese government was attempting to "calm the situation" through censorship: "All comments posted on popular Internet forum [[Sohu|Sohu.com]] relating to a boycott of Carrefour have been deleted."<ref>{{cite web|url = http://washingtontimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080415/FOREIGN/871683123/1003 | title = Chinese organize boycott of French goods | publisher = ''Washington Times'', Chris O'Brien | date = 2008-04-15 | accessdate = 2008-04-19 }}</ref> Chinese protesters organized boycotts of the French-owned retail chain [[Carrefour]] in major Chinese cities including [[Kunming]], [[Hefei]] and [[Wuhan]], accusing the French nation of pro-[[secession]]ist conspiracy and [[anti-Chinese]] racism. Some burned [[French flag]]s, some added [[Nazism]]'s ''[[Swastika]]'' to the French flag,<ref>{{cite news | url = http://www.reuters.com/news/pictures/searchpopup?picId=3943345 | title = National flag of France with Hakenkreuz added by Chinese protesters | publisher = Reuters | date = 2008-04-19 | accessdate = 2008-04-19 | language=French}}</ref> and spread short online messages calling for large protests in front of French consulates and embassy. The Carrefour boycott was met with anti-boycott demonstrators who insisted on entering one of the Carrefour stores in Kunming, only to be blocked by boycotters wielding large [[flag of the People's Republic of China|Chinese flags]] and hit by water bottles.<ref>{{cite news | url =http://news.sina.com/ch/nanfangdaily/102-000-101-101/2008-04-17/20422824425.html | title =昆明網友發起反抵制行動 家樂福前:國旗堵門水瓶砸人 | publisher = sina.com | date = 2008-04-17 | accessdate = 2008-04-18 | language=Chinese}} See also: {{cite news | url = http://fr.news.yahoo.com/rtrs/20080418/twl-chine-carrefour-manifestation-bd5ae06.html | title = Un drapeau français brûlé devant un magasin Carrefour en Chine | publisher = Reuters | date = 2008-04-19 | accessdate = 2008-04-19 | language=French}} See also: {{cite news | url = http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSPEK30252620080418 | title = Angry Chinese burn French flag outside Carrefour | publisher = Reuters | date = 2008-04-18 | accessdate = 2008-04-19}}</ref> The BBC reported that hundreds of people demonstrated in Beijing, Wuhan, Hefei, Kunming and [[Qingdao]].<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7356107.stm "Anti-French rallies across China"], BBC, April 19, 2008</ref>
 
 
In response to the demonstrations, an editorial in the ''[[People's Daily]]'' urged Chinese people to "express [their] patriotic enthusiasm calmly and rationally, and express patriotic aspiration in an orderly and legal manner".<ref>[http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/90785/6396060.html "Protests continue; restraint urged"], ''People's Daily'', April 21, 2008.</ref>
 
 
[[Image:Almaty Torch Relay.jpg|right|thumb|Almaty Torch Relay Billboard at the Astana Square.]]
 
<BR />'''Kazakhstan''': The first torchbearer in [[Almaty]], where the Olympic torch arrived for the first time ever on [[April 2]], was the President of [[Kazakhstan]] [[Nursultan Nazarbaev]]. The route ran 20&nbsp;km from [[Medeo]] stadium to [[Astana Square]]. There were reports that Uighur activists were arrested and some were deported back to China.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5h8YeAJ0bnwe7pnQi_cGKLzCfFqAQD8VPR51O0|title=Olympic Torch Passes Through Kazakhstan}}</ref>
 
 
<BR />
 
'''Turkey''': The torch relay leg in [[Istanbul]], held on [[April 3]], started on [[Sultanahmet Square]] and finished in [[Taksim Square]]. [[Uyghur people|Uyghurs]] living in Turkey protested at Chinese [[2008 Uyghur unrest|treatment]] of their [[East Turkestan independence movement|compatriots]] living in [[Xinjiang]]. They were promptly arrested by the police.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/04/03/europe/3turkey-torch.php|title=Anti-China protest targets Olympic torch ceremony}}</ref>
 
 
See also:
 
{|
 
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| <youtube width=320 height=200>E4Jnwks3h6s</youtube>
 
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| Uyghurs protest Olympic Torch in Istanbul - NTDTV
 
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<BR />
 
'''Russia''': On [[April 5]] the Olympic torch arrived at [[Saint Petersburg]], [[Russia]]. The length of the torch relay route in the city was 20&nbsp;km, with the start at the [[Victory Square, Saint Petersburg|Victory Square]] and finish at the [[Palace Square]].
 
 
[[Image:2008 Olympic Torch Relay, London AB3.JPG|right|thumb|Cordoned by police officers and members of the [[2008_Summer_Olympics_torch_relay#Beijing Olympic Games Sacred Flame Protection Unit|torch's security team]], [[Steve Cram]] carries the Olympic Torch along [[Whitehall]] in [[London]].]]
 
 
<BR />
 
'''Great Britain''': The torch relay leg held in [[London]] on [[April 6]] began at [[Wembley Stadium]], passed through the [[City of London]], and eventually ended at [[The O2 arena (London)|O2 Arena]] in the eastern part of the city. The 48&nbsp;km (31&nbsp;mi) leg took a total of seven and a half hours to complete, and attracted protests by pro-Tibetan independence and pro-Human Rights supporters, prompting changes to the planned route and an unscheduled move onto a bus which then briefly halted by protestors.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/7332942.stm|title=Clashes along Olympic torch route|publisher=BBC News}}</ref> [[Home Secretary]] [[Jacqui Smith]] has officially complained to [[Chinese Olympic Committee|Beijing Organising Committee]] about the conduct of the tracksuit-clad Chinese security guards. The Chinese officials, seen manhandling protesters, were described by both the [[Mayor of London]] [[Ken Livingstone]] and chairman of the [[London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games|London Olympic Committee]] [[Lord Coe]] as "thugs".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7367722.stm|title= Home Office reports torch guards|publisher=BBC News}}</ref> A [[Metropolitan police]] briefing paper revealed that security for the torch relay cost £750,000 and the participation of the Chinese security team had been agreed in advance, despite the Mayor stating, "We did not know beforehand these thugs were from the security services. Had I known so, we would have said no."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2008/apr/22/london.olympicgames2008|title= London torch security cost £750,000|publisher=[[The Guardian]]}}</ref>
 
[[Image:Olympic Torch Relay London 2008 protestors.jpg|left|thumb|Protesters at the torch relay through London]]
 
Of the 80 torch-bearers<ref name="BBC_London_pleas">{{cite news |title=Redgrave receives pleas on Tibet |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/olympics/7326580.stm |work=[[BBC News]] |date=2008-04-03 |accessdate=2008-04-06}}</ref> in London, Sir [[Steve Redgrave]], who started the relay, mentioned to the media that he had received e-mailed pleas to boycott the event and could "see why they would like to make an issue" of it.<ref name="BBC_London_pleas" /> [[Francesca Martinez]] and [[Richard Vaughan (badminton)|Richard Vaughan]] refused to carry the torch,<ref name="Scotsman">{{cite news |first=Mark |last=Horne |title=Logan vows to run Olympic gauntlet |url=http://news.scotsman.com/latestnews/Logan-vows-to-run-Olympic.3952476.jp |work= |publisher=news.scotsman.com |accessdate=2008-04-06}}</ref> while [[Konnie Huq]] decided to carry it and also speak out against China.<ref name="BBC_London_debate">{{cite news |first=Jon |last=Kelly |title=Burning debate over relay boycott |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/7330295.stm |work=[[BBC News]] |date=2008-04-03 |accessdate=2008-04-06}}</ref> The pro-Tibetan [[Member_of_Parliament#United_Kingdom|MP]] [[Norman Baker]] asked all bearers to reconsider.<ref name="Scotsman" /> Amid pressure from both directions, [[Prime Minister of the United Kingdom|Prime Minister]] [[Gordon Brown]] welcomed the torch outside [[10 Downing Street]] without holding or touching it.<ref name="BBC_London_relay">{{cite news |title=Clashes mar Olympic torch relay |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/7332942.stm |work=[[BBC News]] |date=2008-04-06 |accessdate=2008-04-06}} See also: {{cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7333300.stm|title=Jowell defends torch parade role}}</ref>
 
The London relay saw the torch surrounded by what the [[BBC]] described as "a mobile protective ring."<ref name="BBC_London_relay" /> Protests began as soon as Redgrave started the event, leading to at least thirty-five arrests.<ref name="BBC_London_relay" /> In Ladbroke Grove a demonstrator attempted to snatch the torch from [[Konnie Huq]] in a momentary struggle,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=e5a_1207497488|title=Olympic torch relay flame attack ladbroke grove london 2008}}</ref> and in a separate incident, a fire extinguisher was set off near the torch.<ref name="BBC_London_relay" /> The Chinese ambassador carried the torch through [[Chinatown, London|Chinatown]] after an unpublicized change to the route amid security concerns.<ref name="BBC_London_relay" /> The torch made an unscheduled move onto a bus along [[Fleet Street]] amid security concerns and efforts to evade the protesters.<ref name="BBC_London_relay" /><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/04/07/europe/07torch.php|title=Protests of China make Olympic torch relay an obstacle course}}</ref>
 
In an effort to counter the pro-Tibet protesters and show their support for the 2008 Beijing Olympics, more than 2,000 Chinese also gathered on the torch route and demonstrated with signs, banners and Chinese flags. A large number of supporters were concentrated in [[Trafalgar Square]], displaying the Olympic slogan "One World, One Dream".<ref> [http://www.cchere.net/article/1527666 特拉法加广场护圣火归来] See also: [http://www.mitbbs.com/article_t/GreatBritain/326.html 伦敦迎奥运火炬照片]</ref>
 
 
[[Image:2008 Olympic torch relay Paris Jin Jing 3.jpg|thumb|An allegedly Tibetan protester attempts to take the torch from torch-bearer [[Jin Jing]] in Paris.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/10/content_7949378.htm|title=Handicapped Jin receives hero's welcome for protecting Olympic torch in Paris|publisher=[[Xinhua News Agency]]|date=2008-04-10}}</ref>]]
 
 
<BR />
 
'''France''': The torch relay leg in [[Paris]], held on [[April 7]], began on the first level of the [[Eiffel Tower]] and finished at the [[Stade Charléty]]. The relay was initially supposed to cover 28&nbsp;km, but it was shortened at the demand of Chinese officials following widespread protests by pro-Tibet and human rights activists, who repeatedly attempted to disrupt, hinder or halt the procession.<ref>[http://www.france24.com/en/20080408-china-condemns-olympic-torch-disruption-2008-beijing-olympics&navi=MONDE "China condemns Olympic torch disruptions"], France 24, April 8, 2008</ref> A scheduled ceremony at the town hall was cancelled at the request of the Chinese authorities, and, also at the request of Chinese authorities, the torch finished the relay by bus instead of being carried by athletes.<ref>[http://www.france24.com/en/20080408-china-condemns-olympic-torch-disruption-2008-beijing-olympics&navi=MONDE?q=node/1162450 "Paris protests cut short Olympic torch relay"], France 24, April 8, 2008</ref>
 
[[Image:2008 Olympic torch relay, Hôtel de Ville, Paris banner.jpg|left|thumb|Protest banner on the [[Hôtel de Ville, Paris|Hôtel de Ville]] read "Paris defends human rights throughout the world"]]
 
[[Paris]] City officials had announced plans to greet the Olympic flame with peaceful protest when the torch was to reach the French capital. The city government attached a banner reading "Paris defends human rights throughout the world" to the [[Hôtel de Ville, Paris|City Hall]], in an attempt to promote values "of all humanity and of human rights."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/world/view/20080402-127972/Paris-to-greet-Olympic-flame-with-protest—mayor|title=Paris to greet Olympic flame with protest--mayor}}</ref>
 
 
Members from [[Reporters Without Borders]] turned out in large numbers to protest.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/04/02/sports/EU-SPT-OLY-Olympic-Torch-Paris.php|title=Paris City Hall and athletes to highlight human rights during Olympic torch relay}}</ref> An estimated 3,000 French police protected the Olympic torch relay as it departed from the [[Eiffel Tower]] and crisscrossed Paris amid threat of protests.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/04/06/london.torch/index.html|title=Angry protest as torch reaches London}}</ref> Widespread pro-Tibet protests, including an attempt by more than one demonstrator to extinguish the flame with water or fire extinguishers, prompted relay authorities to put out the flame five times (according to the police authorities in Paris<ref> [http://www.lexpress.fr/info/quotidien/actu.asp?id=469562 "Flamme olympique: ce qui s'est vraiment passé à Paris"], ''L'Express'', April 8, 2008</ref>) and load the torch onto a bus,<ref>
 
{{cite news
 
| title = Paris protests force cancellation of torch relay.
 
| publisher = [[msnbc.com]]
 
| date = 2008-04-07
 
| url = http://nbcsports.msnbc.com/id/23978408/
 
| accessdate = 2008-04-07 }}
 
</ref> at the demand of Chinese officials.<ref>[http://www.france24.com/en/20080408-olympic-torch-inflames-protesters-san-francisco-2008-beijing-olympics-usa&navi=MONDE "China condemns Olympic torch disruptions"], France 24, April 8, 2008</ref> This was later denied by the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs,<ref>[http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/journey/paris/news/n214297096.shtml"Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Reports of extinguished flame not true"], April 8, 2008</ref> despite video footage broadcast by French television network [[France 2]] which showed Chinese flame attendants extinguishing the torch.<ref>[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J-MhlRbwbA8&feature=related Video coverage] by [[France 2]] (at 00:14) See also: [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sK75t46XVag&feature=related Video coverage] by [[France 2]] (at 02:21)</ref> Backup flames are with the relay at all times to relight the torch.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://us.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/04/07/oly.torchrelay/index.html|title=Olympic torch hit by protests during Paris leg}}</ref> French [[judoka]] and torchbearer [[David Douillet]] expressed his annoyance at the Chinese [[2008_Summer_Olympics_torch_relay#Flame_attendants|flame attendants]] who extinguished the torch which he was about to hand over to [[Teddy Riner]]: "I understand they're afraid of everything, but this is just annoying. They extinguished the flame despite the fact that there was no risk, and they could see it and they knew it. I don't know why they did it."<ref>[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J-MhlRbwbA8&feature=related David Douillet, interviewed by France 2], April 7, 2008</ref>
 
 
The third torchbearer in the Paris leg, [[Jin Jing]], who was disabled and carried the torch on a wheelchair, was assaulted several times by unidentified protestors seemingly from the pro-Tibet camp.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/04/11/AR2008041100877.html?hpid=moreheadlines|title=A Lighter Day for Torch in Argentina}}</ref><ref name="China rages">{{cite web|url=http://sport.guardian.co.uk/breakingnews/feedstory/0,,-7454494,00.html|title=China rages over attack on disabled torch bearer}}</ref><ref name="flamme" /> In interviews, Jin Jing said that she was "tugged at, scratched" and "kicked",<ref> {{cite web|url=http://news.sina.com/o/2008-04-09/10483585790.shtml|title=殘疾女孩用身體護“祥雲”完成傳遞 堅強感動全世界(2)}}</ref><ref name="flamme"> {{cite web|url=http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x4ztb8_la-flamme-olympique-chahutee-a-pari_news|title=La flamme olympique chahutée à Paris}}</ref> but that she "did not feel the pain at the time." She received praise from Chinese<ref name="China rages" /><ref>{{cite web|url=http://english.eastday.com/eastday/englishedition/sports/userobject1ai3519597.html|title=San Francisco torch carriers condemn disruptions of Olympic flame relay}}</ref> media for her courage. The Chinese government gave the comment that "the Chinese respect France a lot" but "Paris [has slapped] its own face."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2008-04/11/content_6609477.htm|title=Commentary: Paris slaps its own face}}</ref>
 
Chinese officials canceled the torch relay ceremony amidst disruptions, including a Tibetan flag flown from a window in the City Hall by Green Party officials.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/2008/more/04/07/paris.torch.canceled.ap/|title=Paris torch relay canceled|publisher=''Sports Illustrated''|accessdate=2008-04-07|date=2008-04-07|work=Associated Press}} See also: {{cite news|url=http://tf1.lci.fr/infos/jt/0,,3809772,00-flamme-olympique-fortement-chahutee-paris-.html|title=Flamme olympique fortement chahutee|publisher=''TF1-LCI''|accessdate=2008-04-07|date=2008-04-07}}
 
</ref>
 
 
{| style="margin-right:12px; border: 1px solid #D9D9D9;" align=left width=25%
 
|-
 
| <span style="color:grey; font-size:150%; font-family:'Times New Roman',serif; font-weight:bold;">“</span> ''The Chinese officials decided they would not stop here because they were upset by Parisian citizens expressing their support for human rights.''<span style="color:grey; font-size:150%; font-family:'Times New Roman',serif; font-weight:bold;">”</span> <ref>[http://www.france24.com/en/20080408-olympic-torch-inflames-protesters-san-francisco-2008-beijing-olympics-usa&navi=MONDE "China condemns Olympic torch disruptions"], France 24, April 8, 2008 See also: [http://www.paris.fr/portail/accueil/Portal.lut?page_id=1&document_type_id=2&document_id=52052&portlet_id=815 "La flamme de passage à Paris"], official website of the mayor of Paris</ref> — Paris Mayor [[Bertrand Delanoë]]
 
|}
 
 
[[Image:Manifestants tibétains maintenus à l'écart 03.jpg|right|thumb|Tibetan demonstrators kept on the sidelines by a cordon of [[Gendarmerie|gendarmes]], Place de l'Hôtel de Ville]]
 
 
[[Reporters Without Borders]] organised several symbolic protests, including scaling the [[Eiffel Tower]] to hang a protest banner from it, and hanging an identical banner from the [[Notre Dame de Paris|Notre Dame cathedral]].<ref> {{cite news|url=http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=26471|title=Malgré un déploiement policier massif, Reporters sans frontières mobilise largement en faveur des droits de l’homme en Chine lors du passage de la flamme à Paris|publisher=[[Reporters Without Borders]]|date=2008-04-07}} See also: [http://www.lemonde.fr/sports/article/2008/04/07/la-flamme-olympique-est-dans-les-rues-de-paris_1031689_3242.html#ens_id=1020806 "A Paris, la flamme olympique achève son parcours à l'abri des regards"], ''Le Monde'', April 7, 2008</ref>
 
 
Several hundred pro-Tibet protesters gathered at the [[Trocadéro]] with banners and Tibetan flags, and remained there for a peaceful protest, never approaching the torch relay itself.<ref> [http://www.liberation.fr/actualite/sports/319790.FR.php "De la tour Eiffel à Charléty, la flamme dans la tourmente à Paris"], ''Libération'', April 7, 2008 See also: [http://www.lefigaro.fr/actualites/2008/04/07/01001-20080407ARTFIG00439-la-flamme-olympiqueest-partie-de-la-tour-eiffel.php "La déroute de la flamme olympique à Paris"], ''Le Figaro'', April 7, 2008 See also: [http://www.lesoir.be/dossiers/pekin_2008/article_589592.shtml "Le chemin de croix de la flamme à Paris"], ''Le Soir'', April 7, 2008</ref> Among them was [[Jane Birkin]], who spoke to the media about the "lack of freedom of speech" in China.<ref> [http://jconsult.lejdd.fr/2008/04/07/36-la-flamme-deuxieme-episode "La flamme : deuxième épisode"], ''Le Journal du dimanche'', April 7, 2008</ref> Also present was Thupten Gyatso, President of the French Tibetan community, who called upon pro-Tibet demonstrators to "remain calm, non-violent, peaceful".<ref> [http://tf1.lci.fr/infos/france/0,,3809452,00-manifestations-pro-tibet-trocadero-.html "JO Pékin 2008 : Manifestations pro-Tibet au Trocadéro"], [[La Chaîne Info|LCI]], April 7, 2008</ref>
 
 
French members of Parliament and other French politicians also organised a protest. All political parties in Parliament—[[Union for a Popular Movement|UMP]], [[Socialist Party (France)|Socialists]], [[New Centre]], [[French Communist Party|Communists]], [[Democratic Movement (France)|Democratic Movement (centre)]] and [[The Greens (France)|Greens]]—jointly requested a pause in the National Assembly's session, which was granted, so that MPs could step outside and unfurl a banner which read "Respect for Human Rights in China". The coach containing the torch drove past the National Assembly and the assembled protesting MPs, who shouted "Freedom for Tibet!" several times as it passed.<ref> [http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5h-GeMLUsi3KbGxNXvh1DgPr6Kpfg "Des députés crient "Liberté pour le Tibet" devant une flamme... invisible"], AFP, 7 avril 2008</ref>
 
[[Image:2008-04-15 chinese Olympic game Paris.JPG|left|thumb|Chinese demonstration in favor of the Olympic Games, Paris]]
 
 
French police were criticised for their handling of the events, and notably for confiscating Tibetan flags from demonstrators. The newspaper ''[[Libération]]'' commented: "The police did so much that only the Chinese were given freedom of expression. The Tibetan flag was forbidden everywhere except on the Trocadéro."<ref> [http://www.liberation.fr/actualite/sports/319964.FR.php "La police parisienne chasse le Tibétain pour Pékin"], ''Libération'', April 8, 2008</ref> Minister of the Interior [[Michèle Alliot-Marie]] later stated that the police had not been ordered to do so, and that they had acted on their own initiative.<ref> [http://www.liberation.fr/actualite/sports/319989.FR.php "Selon MAM, aucune instruction n’a été donnée pour confisquer les drapeaux tibétains"], ''Libération'', April 8, 2008</ref> A cameraman for [[France 2]] was struck in the face by a police officer, knocked unconscious, and had to be sent to hospital.<ref>[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sK75t46XVag&feature=related France 2 video coverage], April 7, 2008</ref>
 
 
<BR />
 
'''USA''': The torch relay's North American leg occurred in [[San Francisco, California]] on April 9. On the day of the relay officials diverted the torch run to an unannounced route. The start was at [[McCovey Cove]], where Norman Bellingham of the [[United States Olympic Committee|U.S. Olympic Committee]] gave the torch to the first torchbearer, [[China at the 1992 Summer Olympics|Chinese 1992 Olympic champion]] swimmer Lin Li.<ref name=OfficialWebsite>{{cite news|url=http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/journey/sanfrancisco/news/n214299177.shtml|title=Olympic torch relay concludes in San Francisco|publisher=The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Torch Relay|date=[[2008-04-10]]|accessdate=2008-04-10}}</ref> The planned [[Ceremony|closing ceremony]] at [[Justin Herman Plaza]] was cancelled and instead, a ceremony was held at [[San Francisco International Airport]], where the torch was to leave for [[Buenos Aires]].<ref name = "thwart">{{cite news | url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/04/09/MNDS102IIM.DTL | title = Torch leaves San Francisco after surprise route designed to thwart protesters | publisher = [[San Francisco Chronicle]] | date = [[2008-04-09]] | accessdate = 2008-04-09 }} See also: [http://www.nbc11.com/news/15835520/detail.html NBC Torch Relay: Bloggers Gets Close To The Action], nbc</ref> The route changes allowed the run to avoid large numbers of China supporters and protesters against China. As people found out there would be no closing ceremony at Justin Herman Plaza, there were angry reactions.<ref name = "thwart"/> One demonstrator was quoted as saying that the route changes were an effort to "thwart any organized protest that had been planned."<ref name = "thwart"/> [[San Francisco Board of Supervisors]] President [[Aaron Peskin]], a critic of Mayor [[Gavin Newsom]], said that it was a "cynical plan to please the [[George W. Bush|Bush]] [[United States Department of State|State Department]] and the [[Chinese government]] because of the incredible influence of money."<ref name = "thwart"/> Newsom, on the other hand, said he felt it was in "everyone's best interest" and that he believed people had been "afforded the right to protest and support the torch" despite the route changes. [[Peter Ueberroth]], head of the [[United States Olympic Committee|U.S. Olympic Committee]], praised the route changes, saying, "The city of San Francisco, from a global perspective, will be applauded."<ref name = "thwart"/> People who saw the torch were surprised and cheered as shown from live video of [[CBS]] and [[NBC]]. The cost to the city for hosting the event was reported to be USD $726,407.75, nearly half of which has been recovered by private fundraising. Mayor [[Gavin Newsom]] said that "exponential" costs associated with mass arrests were avoided by his decision to change the route in consultation with police chief Heather Fong.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/04/18/BANQ106M7K.DTL|title=Olympic torch's visit cost S.F. $726,400|author=Wyatt Buchanan|date=2008-04-18}}</ref>
 
[[Image:2008 Olympic Torch Relay in SF - Embarcadero 51.JPG|thumb|Part of a large group of pro-Tibetan protesters moving south along the northbound lanes of [[The Embarcadero (San Francisco)|The Embarcadero]] come into contact with pro-Chinese protesters near [[Central Embarcadero Piers Historic District|Pier 1]] in the early afternoon.]]
 
On [[April 1]], [[2008]], the [[San Francisco Board of Supervisors]] approved a resolution addressing [[human rights]] concerns when the Beijing Olympic torch arrives in San Francisco on [[9 April]]. The resolution would welcome the torch with "alarm and protest at the failure of China to meet its past solemn promises to the international community, including the citizens of San Francisco, to cease the egregious and ongoing human rights abuses in China and occupied Tibet."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nbc11.com/news/15762232/detail.html|title=SF To Greet Olympic Torch With 'Alarm And Protest'}} See also: {{cite web|url=http://video.nbc11.com/player/?id=235665|title=Video:SF To Greet Olympic Torch With 'Alarm'}}</ref> On [[April 8]], numerous protests were planned including one at the city's United Nations Plaza led by actor [[Richard Gere]] and Archbishop [[Desmond Tutu]].<ref>[http://news.monstersandcritics.com/usa/news/article_1398973.php/Tutu_Gere_to_protest_San_Francisco_alters_torch_route Tutu, Gere, to protest; San Francisco alters torch route], M&C News, April 8, 2008.</ref>
 
[[Image:Tibet Protests .jpg|thumb|Protestors crowd the barrier gate waving signs and flags as pro-Beijing and pro-Tibetian protestors mingle.]]
 
Some advocates for Tibet, [[Darfur]], and the spiritual sect [[Falun Gong]], planned to protest the April 9 arrival of the torch in San Francisco.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.upi.com/NewsTrack/Top_News/2008/04/02/bay_city_to_protest_olympic_torch/2897/|title=Bay City to protest Olympic torch}}</ref> China had already requested the torch route in San Francisco be shortened.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/China_wants_San_Francisco_Olympic_torchs_route_shortened/articleshow/2903371.cms|title=China wants San Francisco Olympic torch's route shortened}}</ref>
 
On [[April 7]], [[2008]], two days prior to the actual torch relay, three activists carrying Tibetan flags scaled the suspension cables of the [[Golden Gate Bridge]] to unfurl two banners, one saying "One World, One Dream. Free Tibet", and the other, "Free Tibet '08".<ref>{{cite news
 
| title = Torch protesters scale Golden Gate Bridge
 
| publisher = [[KGO-TV]]
 
| date = 2008-04-07
 
| url = http://abclocal.go.com/kgo/story?section=news/local&id=6066082
 
| accessdate = 2008-04-07 }} See also:
 
{{cite news
 
| title = Pro-Tibet protesters climb Golden Gate Bridge tower
 
| publisher = ''[[San Francisco Chronicle]]''
 
| date = 2008-04-07
 
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/04/07/MN6L101A0U.DTL&tsp=1
 
| accessdate = 2008-04-07 }}
 
</ref>
 
Among them was San Francisco resident Laurel Sutherlin, who spoke to the local TV station [[KPIX-TV|KPIX-CBS5]] live from a cellphone, urging the International Olympic Committee to ask China not to allow the torch to go through Tibet. "Sutherlin said he was worried that the torch's planned route through Tibet would lead to more arrests and Chinese officials would use force to stifle dissent."<ref>{{cite news | title = Olympic Torch Protesters Scale Golden Gate Bridge
 
| publisher = CBS5| date = 2008-04-07 | url = http://cbs5.com/local/golden.gate.bridge.2.693783.html | accessdate = 2008-04-07 }}
 
</ref> The three activists and five supporters face charges related to trespassing, conspiracy and causing a public nuisance.<ref>{{cite news
 
| title = Climbers scale Golden Gate Bridge to protest Olympic torch run
 
| publisher = [http://www.cbc.ca CBC Canada]
 
| date = 2008-04-07
 
| url = http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2008/04/07/paris-torch.html?ref=rss
 
| accessdate = 2008-04-07 }}</ref>
 
 
[[Image:PRC Ferry Building Lama.JPG|thumb|left|A [[PRC]] flag and a Free [[Panchen Lama]] poster with a picture of [[Gedhun Choekyi Nyima]]. The [[Ferry Building]] can seen in the background.]]
 
The torch was lit at a park outside at [[AT&T Park]] at about 1:17&nbsp;p.m. [[Pacific Time Zone|PDT]] (20:17 UTC), briefly held aloft by American and Chinese Olympic officials. The relay descended into confusion as the first runner in the elaborately planned relay disappeared into a warehouse on a waterfront pier where it stayed for a half-an-hour.<ref>[http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/san-francisco-olympic-torch-relay/story.aspx?guid=%7B425BCDF1%2D1753%2D4499%2D91B8%2DCE4E69AE0FE6%7D San Francisco Olympic torch relay gets off to chaotic start], MarketWatch, April 9, 2008.</ref> There were clashes between thousands of pro-China demonstrators, many of whom said they were bused in by the Chinese Consulate and other pro-China groups, and both pro-Tibet and Darfur protesters. The non-Chinese demonstrators were reported to have been swamped and trailed by angry crowds.<ref name = "thwart"/> Around 2&nbsp;p.m. PDT (21:00 UTC), the torch resurfaced about two miles (3&nbsp;km) away from the stadium along [[Van Ness Avenue (San Francisco)|Van Ness Avenue]], a heavily trafficked thoroughfare that was not on official route plans. Television reports showed the flame flanked by motorcycles and uniformed police officers. Two torchbearers carried the flame running slowly behind a truck and surrounded by Olympic security guards.<ref>[http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/09/us/09cnd-torch.html?hp Protests and Cheers Along Torch Route], The New York Times, April 9, 2008.</ref> During the torch relay, two torchbearers, Andrew Michael who rides a [[wheelchair]] and is the Vice President for [[Sustainable Development]] for the [[Bay Area]] Council and Director of Partnerships For Change, and an [[Environmentalism|environmental advocate]], [[Majora Carter]], managed to display Tibetan flags in protest, resulting in their ejection from the relay.<ref>{{cite news
 
|url=http://cbs5.com/local/olympic.torch.crowds.2.695825.html
 
|title=Olympic Torch Departs SF After Wild Ride
 
|date=[[April 10]], [[2008]]
 
|publisher=CBS Broadcasting, Inc.
 
}}</ref> The closing ceremony at [[Justin Herman Plaza]] was canceled due to the presence of large numbers of protesters at the site. The torch run ended with a final stretch through San Francisco's [[Marina district]] and was then moved by bus to [[San Francisco International Airport]] for a makeshift closing ceremony at the terminal,<ref name = "thwart">[http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/04/09/MNDS102IIM.DTL&tsp=1 Torch leaves S.F. after surprise route shift<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>from which the free media was excluded. [[San Jose Mercury News]] described the "deceiving" event as "a game of ''[[Where's Waldo]]'', played against the landscape of a lovely city."<ref>{{cite news | url= http://www.mercurynews.com/breakingnews/ci_8868048 | title = Olympic flame relays have always been political | publisher = [[San Jose Mercury News]] | date = [[2008-04-09]] | accessdate = 2008-04-10}}</ref> International Olympic Committee President Jacques Rogge said the San Francisco relay had "fortunately" avoided much of the disruptions that marred the legs in London and Paris, but "was, however, not the joyous party that we had wished it to be."<ref>[http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2008/04/10/ioc-mtg.html?ref=rss San Francisco torch relay no 'joyous party' but IOC relieved], [[Canadian Broadcasting Corporation]]. [[April 10]], [[2008]].</ref>
 
 
<BR />
 
[[Image:Buenos Aires - 2008 Summer Olympics torch relay - 20080411-13.jpg|thumb|right|The torch at Buenos Aires]]
 
'''Argentina''': The torch relay leg in [[Buenos Aires, Argentina]], held on [[April 11]], began with an artistic show at the [[Lola Mora]] amphitheatre in [[Buenos Aires Ecological Reserve|Costanera Sur]]. In the end of the show the [[List of Mayors and Chiefs of Government of Buenos Aires|mayor of Buenos Aires]] [[Mauricio Macri]] gave the torch to the first torchbearer, [[Carlos Espínola (sailor)|Carlos Espínola]].<ref name=OWArg>{{cite news|url=http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/journey/buenosaires/news/n214302510.shtml|title=Olympic torch relay concludes in Buenos Aires|publisher=The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Torch Relay|date=[[2008-04-12]]|accessdate=2008-04-12}}</ref> The leg finished at the Buenos Aires Riding Club in the [[Palermo, Buenos Aires|Palermo district]], the last torchbearer being [[Gabriela Sabatini]]. The 13.8&nbsp;km route included landmarks like the [[Obelisk of Buenos Aires|obelisk]] and [[Plaza de Mayo]].<ref name="Clarin"> {{cite news|url=http://www.clarin.com/diario/2008/04/11/um/m-01648709.htm|title=La Antorcha Olímpica Recorrió Buenos Aires|publisher=[[Clarín]]|date=[[2008-04-11]]|accessdate=2008-04-11}}</ref>
 
[[Image:Buenos Aires - 2008 Summer Olympics torch relay - 20080411-6.jpg|thumb|left| Activists at the [[human rights torch relay]] in Buenos Aires carried signs protesting China's treatment of [[Falun Gong]].]]
 
The day was marked by several pro-Tibet protests, which included a giant banner reading "Free Tibet", and an alternative "[[HRTR|human rights torch]]" that was lit by protesters and paraded along the route the flame was to take. Most of these protests were peaceful in nature, and the torch was not impeded. Chinese immigrants also turned out in support of the Games, but only minor scuffles were reported between both groups.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7343138.stm|title=Argentine torch relay unhindered|publisher=[[BBC World News]]|date=[[2008-04-11]]|accessdate=2008-04-11}} See also: {{cite news|url=http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5gEtQD-yS0Xp4_sizYjZ8SE7bG_1gD8VVQMG00|title=Protests Meet Olympic Torch in Argentina|publisher=[[Associated Press]]|date=[[2008-04-11]]|accessdate=2008-04-11}}</ref> Runners surrounded by rows of security carried the Olympic flame past thousands of jubilant Argentines in the most trouble-free torch relay in nearly a week. People showered the parade route with confetti as banks, government offices and businesses took an impromptu half-day holiday for the only [[Latin America]]n stop on the flame's five-continent journey.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/americas/04/11/argentina.torch.ap/index.html|title=Peaceful Olympic torch run in Argentina|publisher=[[CNN]]|date=[[2008-04-11]]|accessdate=2008-04-12}}</ref>.
 
[[Image:Buenos Aires - 2008 Summer Olympics torch relay - 20080411-12.jpg|thumb|right|The torch in Buenos Aires]]
 
[[Argentine]] activists told a news conference that they would not try to snuff out the torch's flame as demonstrators had in [[Paris]] and [[London]]. "I want to announce that we will not put out the Olympic torch," said pro-Tibet activist Jorge Carcavallo. "We'll be carrying out surprise actions throughout the city of Buenos Aires, but all of these will be peaceful." Among other activities, protesters organized an alternative march that went from the [[Obelisk of Buenos Aires|Obelisk]] to the city hall, featuring their own "Human Rights Torch."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/apr/11/olympicgames2008.argentina?gusrc=rss&feed=networkfront|title=Buenos Aires gears up for torch protests|publisher=[[The Guardian]]|date=[[April 11]], [[2008]]}}</ref> A giant banner reading "Free Tibet" was also displayed on the torch route.
 
According to a representative from the [[NGO]] 'Human Rights Torch Relay', their objective was to "show the contradiction between the Olympic Games and the presence of widespread human rights violations in China"<ref> {{cite web|url=http://lta.reuters.com/article/sportsNews/idLTAN0743173120080408?pageNumber=1&virtualBrandChannel=0|title=Juegos-Planean protesta paso antorcha olímpica en Buenos Aires}}</ref> The outreach director of [[HRTR]], Susan Prager, is also the communication director of "Friends of Falun Gong", a quasi-government non-profit funded by fmr. Congressman Tom Lanto's wife and Ambassador Mark Palmer of [[NED]].<ref>[http://www.guidestar.org/FinDocuments/2001/134/145/2001-134145670-1-9.pdf Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax] (page 4, list of directors) See also: {{cite web|url=http://www.fofg.org/|title=Friends of Falun Gong}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://english.ntdtv.com/?c=258&a=1931|title=Human Rights Torch Relay Builds U.S. Momentum|publisher=[[New Tang Dynasty TV]]|date=2008-02-15}}</ref> A major setback to the event was caused by footballer Diego Maradona, scheduled to open the relay through Buenos Aires, pulling out in an attempt to avoid the Olympic controversy.<ref name="Times Online">{{cite news|url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/olympics/article3731815.ece|title=Diego Maradona refuses to carry Olympic torch|publisher=[[The Times Online]]|date=[[2008-04-11]]|accessdate=2008-04-11}}</ref>
 
 
Trying to avoid the scenes that marred the relay in the UK, France and the US, the city government designed a complex security operative to protect the torch relay, involving 1200 police officers and 3000 other people, including public employees and volunteers.<ref> {{cite web|url=http://www.infobae.com/contenidos/373962-100891-0-Antorcha-ol%C3%ADmpica-llega-la-ciudad-Buenos-Aires|title=Antorcha olímpica llega a la ciudad de Buenos Aires}}</ref> Overall, the protests were peaceful in nature, although there were a few incidents such as the throwing of several water balloons in an attempt to extinguish the Olympic flame, and minor scuffles between Olympic protesters and supporters from Chinese immigrant communities.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7343138.stm|title=Argentine torch relay unhindered|publisher=[[BBC World News]]|date=[[2008-04-11]]|accessdate=2008-04-11}}</ref>
 
 
<BR />
 
'''Tanzania''': [[Dar es Salaam]] was the torch's only stop in [[Africa]], on [[April 13]]. The relay covered 5&nbsp;km. The torch was lit by Vice-President [[Ali Mohamed Shein]]. About a thousand people followed the relay, waving the [[Olympic flag]]. The only noted instance of protest was [[Nobel Peace Prize]] [[laureate]] [[Wangari Maathai]]'s withdrawal from the list of torchbearers, in protest against human rights abuses in Tibet.<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7345245.stm "Torch in peaceful Tanzania relay"], BBC, April 13, 2008 See also: [http://www.france24.com/en/20080413-olympic-torch-relay-tanzania&navi=MONDE "Olympic torch breezes untroubled through Africa"], France 24, April 13, 2008</ref>
 
 
<BR />
 
'''Oman''': [[Muscat, Oman|Muscat]] was the torch's only stop in the [[Middle East]], on [[April 14]]. The relay covered 20&nbsp;km. No protests or incidents were reported.<ref>[http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5hqW3bU6QsHNgIQn6NtBasojysriA "Relaxed Omanis welcome Olympic torch"], AFP, April 14, 2008 See also: [http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/journey/muscat/news/n214307635.shtml "Olympic flame back to Asia in Muscat relay"], official torch relay website, April 14, 2008</ref>
 
 
<BR />
 
'''Pakistan''': The Olympic torch reached [[Islamabad]] for the first time ever on [[April 16]]. President [[Pervez Musharraf]] and Prime Minister [[Yousaf Raza Gillani]] spoke at the opening ceremony of the relay. Security was high, for what one newspaper called the "most sensitive leg" of the torch's Olympic journey.<ref>[http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,23552197-23109,00.html "Torch's most sensitive leg of Olympic journey"], ''Herald Sun'', April 16, 2008</ref> The relay was initially supposed to carry the torch around Islamabad, but the entire relay was cancelled due to security concerns regarding "militant threats or anti-China protests",<ref>[http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,23552197-23109,00.html "Torch's most sensitive leg of Olympic journey"], ''Herald Sun'', April 16, 2008</ref> and replaced by an indoors ceremony with the torch carried around the track of [[Jinnah Sports Stadium|Jinnah Stadium]].<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7349755.stm "Olympic torch relay in Pakistan"], BBC, April 16, 2008</ref>
 
In fear of violent protests and bomb attacks, the torch relay in [[Pakistan]] took place in a stadium behind closed doors. Although the relay was behind closed doors, thousands of policemen and soldiers guarded the flame. As a consequence, no incidents arose.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20080416/ts_afp/chinaunresttibetrightsoly2008pakistan|title= Pakistan torch relay held behind closed doors}}</ref>
 
 
<BR />
 
'''India''': Due to concerns about pro-Tibet protests, the relay through [[New Delhi]] on [[April 17]] was cut to just 2.3&nbsp;km (less than 1.5&nbsp;miles), which was shared amongst 70 runners. It concluded at the [[India Gate]].<ref>[http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/journey/newdelhi/news/n214311528.shtml "New Delhi leg of Olympic torch relay concludes"], official torch relay website, April 17, 2008</ref> The event was peaceful due to the public not being allowed at the relay.<ref>{{cite news | title = India pulls off a peaceful Olympic torch relay, by banning the public | url = http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/india-pulls-off-a-peaceful-olympic-torch-relay-by-banning-the-public-811249.html | date = 2008-04-18 | publisher = The Independent }}</ref> A total of five intended torchbearers -[[Kiran Bedi]], [[Soha Ali Khan]], [[Sachin Tendulkar]], [[Bhaichung Bhutia]] and [[Sunil Gavaskar]]- withdrew from the event, citing "personal reasons",<ref>{{cite news | title = Delhi leg of Olympic torch relay today | url = http://www.hindu.com/2008/04/17/stories/2008041756751900.htm | date = 2008-04-16 | publisher = The Hindu}}</ref> or, in Bhutia's case, explicitly wishing to "stand by the people of Tibet and their struggle" and protest against the PRC "crackdown" in Tibet.<ref>[http://www.chinapost.com.tw/asia/india/2008/04/01/149897/India's-soccer.htm "India's soccer captain refuses to join in Beijing Olympic torch run in Indian capital"], Sandeep Nakai, ''The China Post'' (Taiwan), April 1, 2008</ref> [[India]]n national [[India national football team|football]] captain, [[Baichung Bhutia]] refused to take part in the Indian leg of the torch relay, citing concerns over Tibet. Bhutia, who is [[Sikkim]]ese, is the first athlete to refuse to run with the torch.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.chinapost.com.tw/asia/india/2008/04/01/149897/India's-soccer.htm|title=India's soccer captain refuses to join in Beijing Olympic torch run in Indian capital}}</ref> Indian [[Bollywood|film star]] [[Aamir Khan]] states on his personal blog that the "Olympic Games do not belong to China" and confirms taking part in the torch relay "with a prayer in [[his]] heart for the people of Tibet, and [...] for all people across the world who are victims of human rights violations".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.aamirkhan.com/blog.htm|title=Aamir Khan's blog: Olympic Torch Relay}}</ref> [[Rahul Gandhi]], son of the [[Congress President]] [[Sonia Gandhi]] and scion of the [[Nehru-Gandhi family]], also refused to carry the torch.
 
 
Wary of protests, the Indian authorities have decided to shorten the route of the relay in [[New Delhi]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Wary_of_protests_IOA_shortens_Olympic_torch_route/articleshow/2920822.cms|title=Wary of protests, IOA shortens Olympic torch route}}</ref> and have given it the security normally associated with [[Republic Day]] celebrations, which are considered [[terrorist]] targets.
 
Chinese intelligence's expectations of points on the relay route that would be particularly 'vulnerable' to protesters were presented to the Indian ambassador to Beijing, Nirupama Sen. The Indian media responded angrily to the news that the ambassador, a distinguished lady diplomat, was summoned to the Foreign Ministry at 2 a.m. local time; the news was later denied by anonymous sources in Delhi.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/FullcoverageStoryPage.aspx?id=687bf219-6479-4800-877e-0c2bc3900726TibetUnrest_Special&MatchID1=4680&TeamID1=6|title=India tells China: Will not ban protests by Tibetans}}</ref> The Indian media reported that India's Commerce Minister, [[Kamal Nath]], cancelled an official trip to Beijing in protest, though both Nath and Chinese sources have denied it.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601091&sid=aCUGsn0B1zbw&refer=india|title=India to Bar Tibet Protests During Olympic Torch Run}} See also: {{cite web|url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Stop_Being_Bullied/articleshow/2924200.cms|title=Leader Article: Stop Being Bullied|publisher=[[The Times of India]]}} See also: {{cite web|url=http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/world/20080327TDY05309.htm|title=India cautious over China relations / Unrest in Tibet puts New Delhi in bind regarding government-in-exile}} See also: {{cite web|url=http://www.timesnow.tv/NewsDtls.aspx?NewsID=6767|title=India calls off Nath's visit to China}} See also: {{cite web|url=http://communities.canada.com/vancouversun/blogs/dispatches/archive/2008/04/07/china-india-relations-not-as-friendly-as-they-seem.aspx|title=China-India relations not as friendly as they seem}}</ref>
 
 
India strongly rejected Chinese demands, however, that the torch route be "sanitised" of India's 150,000-strong Tibetan exile community, by which they required a ban on congregation near the curtailed 3&nbsp;km route. In response Indian officials said India was a democracy, and "a wholesale ban on protests was out of the question".<ref name="India torch">{{cite web|url=http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,23524744-2703,00.html|title=Human torch fear in Delhi protests}}</ref>
 
Contradicting some other reports, Indian officials also refused permission to the "Olympic Holy Flame Protection Unit". The combined effect is a "rapid deterioration" of relations between India and China.<ref name="India torch" /> Meanwhile, the [[Central Tibetan Administration|Tibetan government in exile]], which is based in India, has stated that it did not support the disruption of the Olympic torch relay.<ref>{{cite news | title = Tibetan government in exile condemns torch protests | url = http://www.iht.com/articles/reuters/2008/04/10/asia/OUKWD-UK-CHINA-TIBET-EXILES.php | date = 2008-04-11 | publisher = International Herald Tribune}}</ref>
 
 
The noted Indian social activist and a retired Indian Police Service (IPS) officer [[Kiran Bedi]]
 
refused to participate saying "she doesn’t want to run in the event as ‘caged woman’."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.zeenews.com/articles.asp?aid=435556&sid=SPO&ssid=93|title=Kiran Bedi refuses to run with torch; Kalmadi baffled}}</ref>On April 15, [[Bollywood]] actress [[Soha Ali Khan]] pulled out of the Olympic torch relay, citing “very strong personal reasons”.<ref>{{cite news | title = Soha drops Olympic torch | url = http://www.telegraphindia.com/1080416/jsp/nation/story_9142833.jsp | date = 2008-04-16 | publisher = The Telegraph}}</ref>
 
On April 16, a protest was organised in Delhi "against Chinese repression in Tibet", and was broken up by the police.<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_pictures/7350548.stm "Day in pictures"], BBC, April 16, 2008</ref>
 
 
<BR />
 
'''Thailand''': The [[April 18]] relay through [[Bangkok]] was the Olympic flame's first visit to Thailand. The relay covered just over 10&nbsp;km, and included Bangkok's Chinatown.<ref>[http://www.france24.com/en/20080418-olympic-flame-arrives-thailand-2008-beijing&navi=MONDE "Olympic flame arrives in Thailand"], France 24, April 18, 2008 See also: [http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/journey/bangkok/news/n214312005.shtml "Beijing Olympic Flame arrives in Bangkok"], official torch relay website, April 18, 2008</ref> The torch was carried past [[Democracy Monument]], [[Chitralada Palace]] and a number of other city landmarks.<ref>[http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/journey/bangkok/news/n214314979.shtml "Olympic flame sheds glee in 'City of Smile'"], official torch relay website, April 19, 2008</ref> M.R. [[Narisa Chakrabongse]], Green World Foundation (GWF) chairwoman, withdrew from the torch-running ceremony, protesting against China's actions in Tibet.<ref>[http://www.bangkokpost.com/breaking_news/breakingnews.php?id=126671 "Narisa, activists boycott Beijing Olympics"], Bangkok Post, March 22, 2008</ref> Several hundred protesters were present, along with Olympic supporters.<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7355913.stm "Security surrounds Bangkok relay"], BBC, April 19, 2008</ref>
 
Thai authorities threatened to arrest foreign protesters and ban them from future entry into Thailand.<ref>{{cite news | title = Police threaten to arrest Olympic protesters | url = http://www.nationmultimedia.com/breakingnews/read.php?newsid=30070948 | date = 2008-04-17 | publisher = The Nation}}</ref> A coalition of Thai human rights groups announced that it would organise a "small demonstration" during the relay,<ref>[http://www.france24.com/en/20080418-olympic-flame-arrives-thailand-2008-beijing&navi=MONDE "Olympic flame arrives in Thailand"], France 24, April 18, 2008</ref> and several hundred people did indeed take part in protests, facing Beijing supporters.<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7355913.stm "Security surrounds Bangkok relay"], BBC, April 19, 2008</ref> Intended torchbearer [[Mom Rajawongse]] [[Narissara Chakrabongse]] boycotted the relay, to protest against China's actions in Tibet.<ref>[http://www.france24.com/en/20080419-torch-bearer-boycotts-bangkok-olympic-relay-thailand&navi=MONDE "Torch-bearer boycotts Bangkok Olympic relay"], France 24, April 19, 2008</ref> In Bangkok, students told the media that the Chinese Embassy provided them with transportation and gave them shirts to wear.<ref name="cnn0427">[http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/04/27/oly.torch.relay/index.html North Korea hosts Olympic torch], CNN. April 27, 2008.</ref>
 
 
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'''Malaysia''': The event was held in the capital city, [[Kuala Lumpur]], on April 21. The 16.5&nbsp;km long-relay began from the historic [[Merdeka Square|Independence Square]], passed in front of several city landmarks before coming to an end at the iconic [[Petronas Twin Towers]].<ref>{{cite news | title = Special police squad to help protect Olympic flame during KL relay | url = http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/4/19/nation/20080419072748&sec=nation| date = 2008-04-19 | publisher = The Star }}</ref> Among the landmarks the Olympic flame passed next to were the Parliament House, National Mosque, [[Kuala Lumpur Tower|KL Tower]] and [[Merdeka Stadium]]. A team of 1000 personnel from the Malaysian police Special Action Squad guarded the event and escorted the torchbearers. The last time an Olympic torch relay was held in Malaysia was [[1964 Summer Olympics|the 1964 Tokyo edition]].
 
[[Image:DSC 0388.JPG|thumb|A group of youths surrounded a suspected Tibet supporter demonstrating during the torch relay in Kuala Lumpur.<ref>{{cite news | url =http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/4/22/nation/21023094&sec=nation | title = Minor hiccups and a handful of arrests during run | publisher = [[The Star (Malaysia)|The Star]] | date = 2008-04-22 | accessdate = 2008-04-22}}</ref>]]
 
Just days before the relay supporters of Falungong demonstrated in front of the Chinese embassy in the Malaysian capital.<ref>{{cite news | title = Falungong in Malaysian torch protest | url = http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,23560503-5005961,00.html | date = 2008-04-18 | publisher = Herald Sun}}</ref> As many as 1,000 personnel from the special police unit were expected to be deployed on the day of the relay.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/4/19/nation/21005341&sec=nation|title=Special police squad to escort torch runners| date = 2008-04-18 |publisher = Herald Sun}}</ref> A Japanese family with Malaysian citizenship and their 5-year-old child who unfurled a Tibetan flag were hit by a group of Chinese nationals with plastic air-filled batons and heckled by a crowd of Chinese citizens during the confrontation at [[Dataran Merdeka|Independence Square]] where the relay began,<ref>{{cite news | url =http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7357819.stm | title =Torch relay peaceful in Malaysia | publisher = [[BBC]] | date = 2008-04-21 | accessdate = 2008-04-21}} See also: {{cite news | url =http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5gEtQD-yS0Xp4_sizYjZ8SE7bG_1gD9069ML80 | title =Chinese heckle Olympic torch run protesters in Malaysia | publisher = [[Associated Press]] | date = 2008-04-21 | accessdate = 2008-04-21}} See also: {{cite web|url=http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=anzIehMxWCeY|title=Malaysia Detains Five, Avoids Olympic Torch Disorder (Update4)| date = 2008-04-21 |publisher = Bloomberg}}</ref> and the Chinese group shouted: "Taiwan and Tibet belong to China."<ref>{{cite news | url =http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5jCeD0OER-VnLEL5ZbvXgO9qb6IcA | title =Olympic torch starts Malaysia leg amid high security as Japan route altered | publisher = [[Associated Press]] | date = 2008-04-21 | accessdate = 2008-04-21}}</ref> Later during the day, the Chinese volunteers forcefully took away placards from two other Malaysians protesting at the relay. One of the protesting Malaysian was hit in the head.<ref>{{cite news | url =http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/4/22/nation/21023094&sec=nation | title = Minor hiccups and a handful of arrests during run | publisher = [[The Star (Malaysia)|The Star]] | date = 2008-04-22 | accessdate = 2008-04-22}}</ref>
 
 
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'''Indonesia''': The Olympic flame reached [[Jakarta]] on April 22. The original 20&nbsp;km relay through Jakarta was cancelled due to "security worries", at the request of the Chinese embassy,<ref>[http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/5C703F99-4A93-40C2-AA9A-7EE196AF7217.htm "Jakarta Olympic relay cut short"], [[Al Jazeera]], April 22, 2008</ref> and the torch was instead carried round the city main's stadium, as it had been in Islamabad.<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7359914.stm "Torch weathers Indonesia protest"], BBC, April 22, 2008</ref> Several dozen pro-Tibet protesters gathered near the stadium, and were dispersed by the police.<ref>[http://www.france24.com/en/20080422-olympic-torch-relay-indonesia-shortened-jakarta-2008-beijing-games&navi=MONDE "Indonesian police break up pro-Tibet rally"], France 24, April 22, 2008 See also: [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7359914.stm "Torch weathers Indonesia protest"], BBC, April 22, 2008</ref>
 
The event was held in the streets around the city main's stadium. The cancelling of the relay through the city itself was decided due to security concerns and at the request of the Chinese embassy.<ref>[http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/5C703F99-4A93-40C2-AA9A-7EE196AF7217.htm "Jakarta Olympic relay cut short"], [[Al Jazeera]], April 22, 2008 See also: [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7359914.stm "Torch weathers Indonesia protest"], BBC, April 22, 2008</ref> Only invitees and journalists were admitted inside the stadium. Protests took place outside the stadium.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/04/21/malaysia.torch/index.html|title= Chinese students cheer Malaysian torch relay}} See also: [http://www.france24.com/en/20080422-olympic-torch-relay-indonesia-shortened-jakarta-2008-beijing-games&navi=MONDE "Indonesian police break up pro-Tibet rally"], France 24, April 22, 2008 See also: [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7359914.stm "Torch weathers Indonesia protest"], BBC, April 22, 2008</ref>
 
 
[[Image:Julius Patching and Jake Warcaba.JPG|thumb|right|Lifetime Olympic official, 92-year-old [[Julius (Judy) Patching]], hands over to Jake Warcaba at the [[Australian War Memorial|Stone of Remembrance]], [[Canberra, Australian Capital Territory|Canberra]]. Two Chinese [[2008_Summer_Olympics_torch_relay#Beijing_Olympic_Games_Sacred_Flame_Protection_Unit|flame attendants]] stand either side, assisting the two runners. A policeman stands to the left.]]
 
[[Image:24042008354.jpg|thumb|right|Spectators holding Chinese flags during the Canberra leg of the relay.]]
 
 
<BR />
 
'''Australia''': The event was held in [[Canberra, Australian Capital Territory]] on 24 April, and covered around 16&nbsp;km of Canberra's central areas,<ref>[http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/journey/canberra/news/n214301976.shtml "Australian official: No cut in torch relay course in Canberra"], official torch relay website, April 11, 2008</ref> from [[Reconciliation Place]] to [[Commonwealth Park]].<ref>[http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/journey/canberra/news/n214321235.shtml "Olympic torch relay starts in Canberra"], official torch relay website, April 24, 2008</ref> Upon its arrival in Canberra, the Olympic flame was presented by Chinese officials to local [[Australian Aboriginals|Aboriginal]] elder Agnes Shea, of the [[Ngunnawal people]].<ref>[http://www.theage.com.au:80/news/general/olympic-torch-touchdown/2008/04/23/1208742976839.html "Olympic torch lands in Australia"], Brendan Nicholson, ''The Age'', April 23, 2008</ref> She, in turn, offered them a message stick, as a gift of peace and welcome.<ref>[http://news.smh.com.au/olympic-flame-in-canberra-for-relay/20080423-27y0.html "Olympic flame in Canberra for relay"], ''Sydney Morning Herald'', April 23, 2008 See also: [http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/journey/canberra/news/n214319866.shtml "Beijing Olympic flame arrives in Canberra"], official torch relay website, April 23, 2008</ref> Hundreds of pro-Tibet protesters and thousands of Chinese students reportedly attended.<ref name="Australia 1">[http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/04/24/2225921.htm Rival demonstrators face off in Canberra], [[ABC News Online]], April 24, 2008</ref> Demonstrators and counter-demonstrators were kept apart by the [[Australian Federal Police]].<ref name="Australia 1"/> Preparations for the event were marred by a disagreement over the role of the Chinese [[2008_Summer_Olympics_torch_relay#Beijing_Olympic_Games_Sacred_Flame_Protection_Unit|flame attendants]], with Australian and Chinese officials arguing publicly over their function and prerogatives during a press conference.<ref>[http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,23590170-5016724,00.html "China's determination to 'defend' relay sparks fury"], Ben English, ''Herald Sun'', April 24, 2008</ref>
 
 
Following the events in Olympia, there were reports that China requested permission to deploy [[People's Liberation Army]] personnel along the relay route to protect the flame in Canberra. Australian authorities stated that such a request, if it were to be made, would be refused.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2008/s2200041.htm|title=Chinese army will not be monitoring Aust Olympic torch leg: officials|publisher=[[ABC News (Australia)|ABC News]]|date=2008-03-26}}</ref> Chinese officials labeled it a rumor.<ref> [http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/chn/xwfw/fyrth/t419256.htm 外交部发言人秦刚否认有关中方提出派军队赴澳大利亚保护奥运火炬传递的谣言], PRC Ministry of Foreign Affairs. March 29, 2008.</ref> Australian police have been given powers to search relay spectators, following a call by the Chinese Students and Scholars Association for Chinese Australian students to "go defend our sacred torch" against "ethnic degenerate scum and anti-China separatists".<ref>[http://sport.guardian.co.uk/breakingnews/feedstory/0,,-7465594,00.html "Chinese rally in Australia to guard Olympic flame"], Rob Taylor, ''The Guardian'', April 16, 2008</ref> Tony Goh, chairman of the Australian Council of Chinese Organisations, has said the ACCO would be taking "thousands" of pro-Beijing demonstrators to Canberra by bus, to support the torch relay.<ref>[http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=3&art_id=nw20080417092614331C524989 "Olympic torch sizzles in Australia"], Sid Astbury, ''The Independent'' (South Africa), April 17, 2008</ref> Zhang Rongan, a Chinese Australian student organising pro-Beijing demonstrations, told the press that Chinese diplomats were assisting with the organization of buses, meals and accommodation for pro-Beijing demonstrators, and helping them organise a "peaceful show of strength".<ref>[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/04/16/wolympic116.xml "Chinese in Australia vow to defend Olympic torch from pro-Tibet 'scum'"], Nick Squires, ''The Daily Telegraph'', April 16, 2008</ref> Foreign Minister [[Stephen Smith (Australian politician)|Stephen Smith]] said Chinese officials were urging supporters to "turn up and put a point of view", but that he had no objection to it as long as they remained peaceful.<ref name="Australia 2">[http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/FullcoverageStoryPage.aspx?id=b8955ea1-9629-47b1-92c6-e8f357dedfe8TibetUnrest_Special&&Headline=Attend+torch+rally%2c+China+urges+supporters "China urging supporters to attend torch rally: Australian FM"], Madeleine Coorey, AFP, April 22, 2008</ref>
 
[[Image:24042008350.jpg|thumb|left|Chinese spectators holding signs in Canberra.]]
 
Intended torchbearer [[Lin Hatfield Dodds]] withdrew from the event, explaining that she wished to express concern about China's human rights record.<ref>[http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/4/22/apworld/20080422101055&sec=apworld "Australian torch bearer pulls out of Olympic relay citing human rights concerns"], ''The Star'', April 22, 2008 See also: [http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5j5NJYSyvfSKbGzkqDRWSTZ1wNGjg "Australian torch runner pulls out of Olympic relay"], AFP, April 22, 2008</ref> Foreign Minister Stephen Smith said her decision was "a very good example of peacefully making a point".<ref name="Australia 2"/>
 
 
Up to 600 pro-Tibet protesters were expected to attend the relay, along with between 2,000 and 10,000 Chinese supporters.<ref name="Australia 2"/> Taking note of the high number of Chinese supporters, [[Ted Quinlan]], head of the Canberra torch relay committee, said: "We didn't expect this reaction from the Chinese community. [It is] obviously a well-coordinated plan to take the day by weight of numbers. But we have assurances that it will be done peacefully."<ref>[http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/04/24/2225921.htm?section=sport "Rival demonstrators face off in Canberra"], ABC News, April 24, 2008</ref> Also, Australia's [[Australian Capital Territory|ACT]] Chief Minister, [[Jon Stanhope]] confirmed that the Chinese embassy was closely involve to ensure that "pro-China demonstrators vastly outnumbered Tibetan activists."<ref>[http://www.news.com.au/dailytelegraph/story/0,22049,23595025-5006009.00.html "Chinese rent-a-crowd inflamed Olympic torch tensions"], Ben English, The Daily Telegraph, April 25, 2008</ref>. Australian freestyle swimmer and five-time Olympic gold medalist [[Ian Thorpe]] ended the Australian leg of the torch relay [[April 24]], [[2008]], touching the flame to light a cauldron after a run that was only marginally marked by protests. People demonstrated both for China and for Tibet. At least five people were arrested during the torch relay. Police said "the five were arrested for interfering with the event under special powers enacted in the wake of massive protests against Chinese policy toward Tibet."<ref>[http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/04/23/torch.relay.canberra/index.html "Australian torch relay ends with minor skirmishes"], CNN, April 24, 2008</ref> At one point, groups of Chinese students surrounded and intimidated pro-Tibet protesters. One person had to be pulled aboard a police launch when a group of pro-Chinese students looked like they might force him into the lake.<ref>[http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/04/24/news/torch.php Olympic relay ends in Australia with little interruption], ''International Herald Tribune''. April 24, 2008.</ref>
 
 
<BR />
 
'''Japan}''': The event was held in [[Nagano]], which hosted the [[1998 Winter Olympics]], on April 26. Japanese Buddhist temple [[Zenkō-ji]], which was originally scheduled to be the starting point for the Olympic torch relay in [[Nagano, Nagano|Nagano]], refused to host the torch and pulled out of the relay plans, amid speculation that monks there sympathized with anti-Chinese government protesters.<ref>{{cite news | url =http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/04/18/asia/AS-GEN-Japan-Olympic-Torch.php | title =Report: Japanese temple refuses to host Olympic torch relay | publisher = [[International Herald Tribune]] | date = 2008-04-18 | accessdate = 2008-04-18}}</ref> as well as the risk of disruption by violent protests.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/04/18/2221113.htm?section=justin|title=Japanese temple refuses to host torch ceremony}}</ref> Parts of Zenkō-ji temple's main building (Zenkō-ji Hondō), reconstructed in 1707 and one of the [[National Treasures of Japan]], was then vandalized with spraypaint. A new starting point, previously the site of a municipal building and now a parking lot, was chosen by the city.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/04/20/asia/AS-GEN-Japan-Temple.php |title=Japanese temple sprayed with graffiti after withdrawing from Olympic torch relay |publisher=[[International Herald Tribune]] |date=[[2008-04-20]] |accessdate=2008-04-20}} See also: {{cite web|url=http://www.zenkoji.jp/hondou/ |title=【信州善光寺】本堂のご案内 |publisher=Zenkoji Temple |accessdate=2008-04-21 |language=Japanese}}</ref> An event the city had planned to hold at the Minami Nagano Sports Park following the torch relay was also canceled out of concern about disruptions caused by demonstrators protesting against China's recent crackdown in Tibet.<ref>[http://www.breitbart.com/article.php?id=D9021P600&show_article=1 Event cancelled for Nagano leg of Olympic torch relay], breitbart.com. April 14, 2008.</ref> Thousands of [[riot police]] were mobilized to protect the torch along its route. The show of force kept most protesters in check, but slogans shouted by pro-China or pro-Tibet demonstrators, [[Japanese nationalists]], and human rights organizations flooded the air. Five men were arrested and four injured amidst scenes of mob violence. <ref>[http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article3822570.ece Japan mobs Olympic torch of trouble], ''[[The Times]]''. April 27, 2008.</ref> The torch route was packed with mostly peaceful demonstrators. The public was not allowed at the parking lot where the relay started. After the Zenkoji monks held a prayer ceremony for victims of the recent events in Tibet. More than 100 police officers ran with the torch and riot police lined the streets while three helicopters flew above. Only two [[Beijing Olympic Games Sacred Flame Protection Unit|Chinese guards]] were allowed to accompany the torch because of Japan's concern over their treatment of demonstrators at previous relays. A man with a Tibetan flag tried to stop the torch at the beginning of the relay but was dragged off by police. Some raw eggs were also thrown from the crowd.<ref>[http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1735388,00.html Olympic Torch Hits Nagano Without Hitch], [[Time (magazine)|''Time'']]. April 26, 2008.</ref>
 
 
<BR />
 
[[Image:2008 Summer Olympics torch relay in Seoul03.JPG|right|thumb|A young man at the relay in Seoul wearing a [[Daegu University]] shirt with the phrase "''[[Tibetan sovereignty debate|Tibet belongs to China]]''" written on it.]]
 
'''Korea''': The event was held in [[Seoul]], which hosted the [[1988 Summer Olympics]], on April 27.
 
Intended torchbearers Choi Seung-kook and Park Won-sun boycotted the event to protest against the Chinese government's crackdown in Tibet.<ref>[http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/04/22/asia/AS-GEN-OLY-SKorea-Olympic-Torch.php "2 South Koreans boycott Olympic torch relay to protest Tibet crackdown"], ''International Herald Tribune'', April 22, 2008</ref> More than 8,000 riot police were deployed to guard the 15-mile route, which began at Olympic Park, which was built when Seoul hosted the 1988 Summer Games.<ref name="cnn0427"/> On the day of the torch relay in [[Seoul]], Chinese students clashed with protesters, throwing rocks, bottles, and punches. A [[North Korean defector]] whose brother defected to China but was captured and executed by the [[DPRK]], attempted to [[Self-immolation|set himself on fire in protest]] of China's treatment of North Korean refugees. He poured gasoline on himself but police quickly surrounded him and carried him away. Two other demonstrators tried to storm the torch but failed. Fighting broke out near the beginning of the relay between a group of 500 Chinese supporters and approximately 50 protesters who carried a banner that read: "Free North Korean [[refugees]] in China." The students threw stones and water bottles as approximately 2,500 police tried to keep the groups separated. Police said they arrested five people, including a Chinese student who was arrested for allegedly throwing rocks. Thousands of Chinese followed the torch on its 4.5 hour journey, some chanting, "Go China, go Olympics!"<ref>[http://www.latimes.com/news/la-fg-torch28apr28,1,5219712.story Clashes break out at Olympic torch relay in South Korea], ''Los Angeles Times''</ref> By the end of the relay, Chinese students became violent, and it was reported in Korean media that they were "lynching" everyone who was disagreeing with them. One police man was also rushed to hospital after being attacked by Chinese students.<ref>[http://news.empas.com/show.tsp/20080429n00433 중국인 폭력 시위 아닌 폭동], ''투데이코리아''</ref><ref>[http://news.empas.com/show.tsp/20080429n01745 한국인 중국서 공안 때렸으면 죽었을 것], ''Chosun Ilbo''</ref> On Apr 29, the Secretary of Justice, Kim Kyung Han, told the prime minister that he will find "every single Chinese who was involved and bring them to justice."<ref>[http://media.daum.net/politics/others/view.html?cateid=1020&newsid=20080429103016118&cp=yonhap&RIGHT_COMM=R1 정부, 중국인 폭력시위 법에 따라 엄정대처], ''Yonhap News''</ref> Later in the day, South Korea's Prosecutor's Office, National Police Agency, [[Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (South Korea)|Ministry of Foreign Affairs]] and [[National Intelligence Service (South Korea)|National Intelligence Service]] made a joint statement saying that they will be deporting every Chinese student that was involved in the incident.<ref>[http://media.daum.net/society/others/view.html?cateid=1067&newsid=20080429155812048&cp=yonhap&RIGHT_COMM=R1 성화봉송 폭력 중국인 강제 출국 조치], ''Yonhap News''</ref>
 
 
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'''People's Republic of Korea''': The event was held in [[Pyongyang]] on April 28. It was the first time that the Olympic torch has traveled to [[North Korea]]. A crowd of thousands waving pink paper flowers and small flags with the Beijing Olympics logo were organized by the authoritarian regime <ref>[http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/04/28/asia/AS-GEN-NKorea-Olympic-Torch.php North Korea hosts its first Olympic torch relay], ''International Herald Tribune''. April 28, 2008.</ref> watched the beginning of the relay in Pyongyang, some waving Chinese flags. The event was presided over by the head of the country's parliament, [[Kim Yong-nam|Kim Yong Nam]]. The North, an ally of China, has been critical of disruptions to the torch relay elsewhere and has supported Beijing in its actions against protests in Tibet. Kim passed the torch to the first runner [[Pak Doo-Ik|Pak Du Ik]], who played on North Korea's 1966 World Cup soccer team, as he began the 12-mile route through Pyongyang. The relay began from the large sculpted flame of the obelisk of the [[Juche Tower]], which commemorates the national ideology of "self-reliance" created by the country's late founding President [[Kim Il Sung]], father of current leader [[Kim Jong Il]], who did not attend.
 
 
The [[United Nations Organization]] and its children's agency [[UNICEF]] withdrew their staff from, saying that it wasn't sure the event would help its mission of raising awareness of conditions for children.<ref>[http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article3690011.ece UN pulls out of North Korea Olympic torch ceremony amid fears of propaganda coup] ''[[The Times]]''. April 6, 2008.</ref> and amid concerns that the relay will be used as a propaganda stunt. “It was unconscionable,” said a UN official who was briefed on the arguments. North Korea is frequently listed among the world’s worst offenders against human rights.
 
 
<BR />
 
'''Vietnam''': The event was held in [[Ho Chi Minh City]] on April 29. Some 60 torchbearers carried the torch from the downtown [[Municipal Theatre, Ho Chi Minh City|Opera House]] to the Military Zone 7 Competition Hall stadium near [[Tan Son Nhat International Airport]] along an undisclosed route. Vietnam is involved in a territorial dispute with China (and other countries) for sovereignty of the [[Spratly Islands|Spratly]] and [[Paracel Islands]]; tensions have risen recently following reports that the Chinese Government had established a county-level city named [[Hainan Province Paracels, Spratlys, and Zhongsha Islands Authority|Sansha]] in the disputed territories<ref>{{cite web|author=The Associated Press |url=http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/12/09/news/Vietnam-China-Protest.php |title=Vietnamese hold rare demonstration to protest China's attempt to control disputed islands |publisher=International Herald Tribute |date=2007-12-09 |accessdate=2007-12-09}} See also: {{cite web |url=http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20071209/wl_asia_afp/vietnamprotestchinaspratlysparacels |title=Vietnamese rally outside China embassy over disputed islands |accessdate=2007-12-09 |author=Frank Zeller |publisher=AFP}}</ref>, resulting in anti-Chinese demonstrations in December 2007 in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. However to sustain its relationship with China the Vietnamese government has actively sought to head off protests during the torch relay, with Prime Minister [[Nguyễn Tấn Dũng]] warning government agencies that "hostile forces" may try to disrupt the torch relay.<ref>{{cite news
 
|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSHAN16857320080421
 
|title=Vietnam PM warns of Olympics torch relay disruptions
 
|author=Grant McCool
 
|date=2008-04-20
 
|publisher=Reuters
 
|accessdate=2008-04-23}}</ref>
 
 
Prior to the rally seven anti-China protestors were arrested in [[Hanoi]] after unfurling a banner and shouting "Boycott the Beijing Olympics" through a loudhailer at a market<ref>[http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/apr/29/olympicgames2008.china Protesters held ahead of torch relay in Vietnam]</ref>. A [[Vietnamese American]] was deported for planning protests against the torch<ref>{{cite news
 
|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7368307.stm
 
|publisher=BBC News
 
|title=Japan leg of torch relay begins
 
|date=2008-04-26
 
|accessdate=2008-04-26}}</ref>, while a prominent blogger Điếu Cày (real name Nguyễn Văn Hải) who blogged about protests around the world and who called for demonstrations in Vietnam was arrested on charges of [[tax evasion]].<ref>{{cite news
 
|url=http://www.bangkokpost.com/breaking_news/breakingnews.php?id=127269
 
|title=Vietnam arrests blogger for reporting torch protests
 
|publisher=Bangkok Post
 
|accessdate=2008-04-23}}</ref> Outside Vietnam, there were protests by [[overseas Vietnamese]] in Paris, San Francisco and Canberra. Lê Minh Phiếu, a torchbearer who is a Vietnamese law student studying in France wrote a letter to the president of the International Olympic Committee protesting China's "politicisation of the Olympics", citing maps of the torch relay at the official Beijing Olympic website depicting the disputed islands as Chinese territory and posted it on his blog.<ref> {{cite web
 
|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/vietnamese/vietnam/story/2008/04/080409_le_minh_phieu.shtml
 
|title=Phản đối chính trị hóa Olympics
 
|publisher=BBC Vietnamese
 
|date=2008-04-11
 
|accessdate=2008-04-11}}</ref> One day before the relay was to start, the official website appeared to have been updated to remove the disputed islands and dotted lines marking China's maritime claims in the [[South China Sea]].<ref> {{cite news
 
|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/vietnamese/vietnam/story/2008/04/080430_olympics_leminhphieu.shtml
 
|title=Đuốc Olympic đến Việt Nam
 
|publisher=BBC Vietnamese
 
|date=2008-04-29
 
|accessdate=2008-04-29}}</ref>
 
 
<BR />
 
[[Image:HK Olympic Torch Relay Celebration Press.jpg|thumb|right|Media coach driving in front of a torch relay runner]]
 
[[Image:OlympicTorchInHongKong 012.jpg|thumb|right|Large numbers of supporters lined along the torch relay route in Hong Kong]]
 
[[Image:HK Olympic Torch Relay in Shing Mun River Channel.jpg|thumb|left|Relay runner Rosanna Sze Hang Yue carrying Olympic torch on a [[dragon boat]] for the first time]]
 
[[Image:Tsim Sha Tsui - 2008 Summer Olympics torch relay in Hong Kong - 2008-05-02 10h38m10s SN207070.jpg|thumb|left|A relay runner and artist, [[Leo Ku]] on [[Nathan Road]]]]
 
'''Hong Kong''': The event was held in [[Hong Kong]] on May 2. In the ceremony held at the [[Hong Kong Cultural Centre]] in [[Tsim Sha Tsui]], [[Chief Executive of Hong Kong]] [[Donald Tsang]] handed the torch to the first torchbearer, Olympic medalist [[Lee Lai Shan]].<ref> {{cite news
 
|url=http://www.singtao.com/breakingnews/20080502a103536.asp
 
|title=曾蔭權交棒李麗珊
 
|date=2008-05-02
 
|publisher=Singtao
 
|accessdate=2008-05-02}}</ref> The torch relay then traveled through [[Nathan Road]], [[Lantau Link]], [[Sha Tin]] (crossed [[Shing Mun River]] via a [[dragon boat]], which had been never used before in the history of Olympic torch relays)<ref> {{cite news
 
|url=http://www.singtao.com/breakingnews/20080502a131407.asp
 
|title=施幸余乘龍舟傳送火炬
 
|date=2008-05-02
 
|publisher=Singtao
 
|accessdate=2008-05-02}}</ref><ref>{{cite news
 
|url=http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120970093909662177.html?mod=googlenews_wsj|title=Crowds Cheer Olympic Torch in Hong Kong|date=2008-05-02|publisher=The Wall Street Journal|accessdate=2008-05-02}}</ref>, [[Victoria Harbour]] (crossed by ''Tin Hau'', a VIP vessel managed by the Marine Department) before ending in [[Golden Bauhinia Square]] in [[Wan Chai]]. <ref name="standard">[http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=11&art_id=65309&sid=18752364&con_type=3 200,000 expected to fan the Olympic flame] "[[The Standard]]" Retrieved on [[2008-05-02]].</ref>
 
A total of 120 torchbearers were selected to participate in the event<ref>[http://www.lcsd.gov.hk/TorchRelay/en/activities.php Beijing 2008 Olympics torch relay - Activities], Leisure and Cultural Services Department, Gov.hk. Accessed on April 27,2008.</ref> consisting of celebrities, athletes and members of the pro-Beijing camp politicians. No representatives from the [[pro-democracy camp]] were selected as torchbearers.<ref>SCMP. "[http://www.scmp.com/portal/site/SCMP/menuitem.2af62ecb329d3d7733492d9253a0a0a0/?vgnextoid=8a0671aaeba99110VgnVCM100000360a0a0aRCRD&ss=China&s=News SCMP]." ''Torch lineup net could have been cast wider.'' Retrieved on [[2008-05-02]].</ref> One torchbearer could not participate due to flight delay.<ref> {{cite news
 
|url=http://www.singtao.com/breakingnews/20080502a104245.asp
 
|title=施懿庭因航班延誤未能任火炬手
 
|date=2008-05-02
 
|publisher=Singtao
 
|accessdate=2008-05-02}}</ref> It was estimated that more than 200,000 spectators came out and watched the relay.<ref name="The Standard">[http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=11&art_id=65309&sid=18752364&con_type=3 200,000 expected to fan the Olympic flame] "[[The Standard]]" Retrieved on [[2008-05-02]].</ref> Many enthusiastic supporters wore red shirts and waved large [[Flag of the People's Republic of China|Chinese flags]].<ref name="BloombergHK">Bloomberg.com. "[http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601080&sid=a0L1B6wjYMss Hong Kong Hosts Torch Relay Amid Support, Criticism]." Retrieved on [[2008-05-02]].</ref> According to Hong Kong [[Chief Secretary for Administration]] [[Henry Tang]], 3,000 police were deployed to ensure order.<ref>[http://nbcsports.msnbc.com/id/24043923/ IOC chief: Olympics in 'crisis' over torch chaos], NBC</ref>
 
 
There were several protests along the torch relay route. Members of the [[Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements in China]], including pro-democracy activist [[Szeto Wah]], waved novelty [[inflatable]] plastic Olympic flames, which they said symbolised democracy.<ref name="scmp2">SCMP. "[http://www.scmp.com/portal/site/SCMP/menuitem.2af62ecb329d3d7733492d9253a0a0a0/?vgnextoid=72a706d1b38a9110VgnVCM100000360a0a0aRCRD&ss=Hong+Kong&s=News SCMP]." ''Tensions evident during HK torch relay.'' Retrieved on [[2008-05-02]].</ref> They wanted accountability for the [[Tiananmen Square protests of 1989]] and the implementation of [[Democratisation in Hong Kong|democracy in Hong Kong]].<ref>[http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?we_cat=11&art_id=63975&sid=18381161&con_type=1&d_str=20080407&fc=1 Keep Olympic torch run free of protest, pleads sports boss], ''[[The Standard]]''. Accessed on April 11, 2007.</ref> Political activist and [[Legislative Council of Hong Kong|Legislative Council]] member [[Leung Kwok-hung|Leung Kwok-hung (Longhair)]] also joined the protest, saying "I'm very proud that in Hong Kong we still have people brave enough to speak out."<ref name="BloombergHK"/> Pro-democracy activists were overwhelmed by a crowd of torch supporters with insults like "running dog," "traitor," "get out!," and "I love the [[Communist Party of China|Communist Party]]."<ref>Msnbc. "[http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24380292/ Msnbc]." ''Major China support in Hong Kong torch run.'' Retrieved on [[2008-05-02]].</ref><ref name="MingPao1"> {{cite news
 
|url=http://www.mingpaonews.com/20080503/gaa1.htm
 
|title=十萬紅衣夾道 百棒聖火樂傳 紅軍圍橙軍起推撞
 
|date=2008-05-03
 
|publisher=Ming Pao
 
|accessdate=2008-05-03}}</ref> At the same time, about 10 members of the [[Civil Human Rights Front]] had orange banners calling for human rights improvements and [[universal suffrage]]. Onlookers were saying "Aren’t you Chinese?" in [[Putonghua|Mandarin putonghua]] as they tried to cover the orange banners with a large Chinese national flag.<ref name="scmp2" /> One woman had an orange sign that said, "Olympic flame for democracy", while a man carried a poster with a tank and the slogan "One world, two dreams". A university student Christina Chan wrapped the Tibetan [[Flag of Tibet|snow lion flag]] around her body and later began waving it. Several onlookers heckled Chan, shouting "What kind of Chinese are you?" and "What a shame!"<ref>SCMP. "[http://www.scmp.com/portal/site/SCMP/menuitem.2af62ecb329d3d7733492d9253a0a0a0/?vgnextoid=70258e91d57a9110VgnVCM100000360a0a0aRCRD&ss=Hong+Kong&s=News SCMP]." ''HK Olympic torch relay proceeding smoothly.'' Retrieved on [[2008-05-02]].</ref><ref name="MingPao1"/> In the end, she and some of the protesters were taken away against their will by the authorities via a police vehicle "for their own protection."<ref>AP. [http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5gEtQD-yS0Xp4_sizYjZ8SE7bG_1gD90DK4PO0 Torch relay inspires show of patriotism in Hong Kong]</ref> <ref>[http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid959009704?bclid=1350264326&bctid=1534502836 "Protesting the Torch in Hong Kong"], ''International Herald Tribune'' (video report), May 5, 2008</ref>
 
[[Image:Tsim Sha Tsui - 2008 Summer Olympics torch relay in Hong Kong - 2008-05-02 09h21m38s SN207002.jpg|thumb|right|Members of the [[Civil Human Rights Front]] protesting near Tsim Sha Tsui]]
 
 
The Color Orange democracy group, led by [[Denmark|Danish]] sculptor Jens Galschiot, originally planned to join the Hong Kong Alliance relay and paint the "[[Pillar of Shame]]," a structure he built in Hong Kong to commemorate the 1989 [[Tiananmen Square massacre]].<ref name="BloombergHK"/> However, Galschiot and two other people were denied entry to Hong Kong on April 26, 2008 due to "immigration reasons" and were forced to leave Hong Kong.<ref>Color orange. "[http://www.thecolororange.net/uk/page147 Color orange]." ''We have just received this message from the Orange group in the airport of HK.'' Retrieved on [[2008-05-02]].</ref> In response, [[Lee Cheuk Yan]], vice chairman of the Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements in China, said, "It's outrageous that the government is willing to sacrifice the image of Hong Kong because of the torch relay."<ref name="BloombergHK"/> [[Hollywood]] actress [[Mia Farrow]] was also briefly questioned at the [[Hong Kong International Airport|Hong Kong airport]] though officials allowed her to enter. She later gave a speech criticizing China's relations with [[Sudan]] in Hong Kong, as there was also a small minority of people protesting about China's role in the crisis of Darfur.<ref>IHT. "[http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/05/01/asia/torch.php International Herald Tribune]." ''Mia Farrow enters Hong Kong to give speech critical of China-Sudan ties.'' Retrieved on [[2008-05-02]].</ref> Legislator [[Cheung Man Kwong]] have also said the government's decision allowing Farrow to enter while denying others is a [[double standard]] and a violation to Hong Kong's [[one country, two systems]] policy.<ref>SCMP. "[http://www.scmp.com/portal/site/SCMP/menuitem.2af62ecb329d3d7733492d9253a0a0a0/?vgnextoid=3f9393eb9aeb9110VgnVCM100000360a0a0aRCRD&s=News SCMP]." ''Article.'' Retrieved on [[2008-05-07]].</ref>
 
 
<BR />
 
[[Image:FuwainMacau.JPG|thumb|right|[[Fuwa]] designs along the relay way]]
 
'''Macau''': The event was held in Macau on May 3. It was the first time that the Olympic torch has traveled to Macau. A ceremony was held at [[Macau Fisherman's Wharf]]. Afterward, the torch traveled through Macau, passing by a number of landmarks includes [[A-Ma Temple]], [[Macau Tower]], [[Ponte Governador Nobre de Carvalho]], [[Ponte de Sai Van]], Macau Cultural Centre, Macau Stadium and then back to the Fisherman's Wharf for the closing ceremony. Parts of the route near [[Ruins of St. Paul's]] and [[Taipa]] was shortened due to large crowds of supporters blocking narrow streets.<ref> {{cite news
 
|url=http://www.macaodaily.com/html/2008-05/04/content_168679.htm
 
|title= 當局解釋改傳遞路線原因
 
|date=2008-05-04
 
|publisher=Macao Daily News
 
|accessdate=2008-05-04}}</ref> A total of 120 torchbearers participated in this event including casino tycoon [[Stanley Ho]]. <ref>{ {{cite news
 
|url=http://www.macaodaily.com/html/2008-05/03/content_168311.htm
 
|title= 今傳聖火全城沸騰
 
|date=2008-05-02
 
|publisher=Macao Daily News
 
|accessdate=2008-05-02}}</ref> Leong Hong Man and Leong Heng Teng were the first and last torchbearer in the relay respectively.<ref>[http://www.macauolympic.org/moc/index.php?act=news_show&news_id=68 Macao Torchbearer Reception Held Yesterday]</ref> An article published on [[Macao Daily News]] criticized that the list of the torchbearers could not fully represent the [[Macanese]] and that there were too many non-athletes among the torchbearers. (some of whom had already been torchbearers of other sporting events)<ref> {{cite news
 
|url=http://www.macaodaily.com/html/2008-04/15/content_159155.htm
 
|title= 為甚麼又是他們?
 
|date=2008-04-15
 
|publisher=Macao Daily News
 
|accessdate=2008-05-04}}</ref>
 
 
A union planned to protest at the relay for better living conditions.<ref> {{cite web|url=http://www1.appledaily.atnext.com/template/apple/art_main.cfm?iss_id20080416&sec_id=4104&subsec_id=11867&art_id=10994273|title=聖火傳送周五實地綵排|publisher=Apple Daily|date=2008-04-16}}</ref> Hong Kong legislator Michael Mak Kwok-fung and activist Chan Cheong, both members of the [[League of Social Democrats]], were not allowed to enter Macau.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20080429/wl_asia_afp/chinaunresttibetrightsoly2008torchhongkongmacau|title= Macau bars Hong Kong democrats ahead of Olympic torch: report}}</ref>
 
 
A Macau resident was arrested on April 26 for posting a message on cyberctm.com encouraging people to disrupt the relay. Both orchidbbs.com and cyberctm.com internet forums were shutdown from May 2 to 4. This fueled speculations that the shutdowns were targeting speeches against the relay. Head of the Bureau of Telecommunications Regulation has denied that the shutdown of the websites were politically motivated.<ref>SCMP. "[http://www.scmp.com/portal/site/SCMP/menuitem.2af62ecb329d3d7733492d9253a0a0a0/?vgnextoid=2624cda5e1fca110VgnVCM100000360a0a0aRCRD&ss=China&s=News SCMP]." ''Censors stalking Macau's Net users.'' Retrieved on [[2008-07-04]].</ref> About 2,200 police were deployed on the streets, there were no interruptions.<ref>Yahoo news. "[http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20080503/wl_afp/chinaunresttibetrightsoly2008macau_080503114104 Yahoo news]." '' Olympic torch enjoys smooth run in casino haven Macau.'' Retrieved on [[2008-05-02]].</ref>
 
 
===Domestic leg===
 
[[Image:2008 Summer Olympics torch relay, Shenzen.jpg|thumb|The torch passing through [[Shenzen]].]]
 
'''[[Hainan]], [[People's Republic of China|China]]''': The torch arrived at [[Sanya]] on [[May 4]]. The torch relay covered 30 kilometers and took more than 11 hours to finish, passing by city attractions such as the venue for Miss World final and a well-decorated avenue along the coastline. The relay came to an end at the famous scenic spot of [[Tianya Haijiao]], which means the ends of the earth in Chinese,<ref>[http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90779/90867/6403023.html Beijing Olympic Flame arrives in Sanya], ''People's Daily''. May 4, 2008.</ref> with celebrations attended by International Olympic Committee (IOC) officials and Chinese big names like [[Jackie Chan]]. On [[May 5]], the torch traveled to [[Wuzhishan|Wuzhishan City]]. The torch relay started at the Sanyuesan Square and ended at the Merry Festival Square by [[Wanquan River]] in [[Qionghai]]<ref>[http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-05/05/content_8105694.htm Beijing Olympic torch relay kicks off in Wuzhishan city], Xinhua. May 5, 2008.</ref> and later [[Wanning]]. Along the way, thousands of ethnic people welcomed the torch.<ref>[http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-05/06/content_8113837.htm Ethnic people welcome Olympic torch relay in S China], Xinhua. May 6, 2008.</ref> On [[May 6]], the torch reached its last stop in Hainan, [[Haikou]], passing by many local landmarks such as [[Haikou Century Bridge|Century Bridge]].<ref>[http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-05/06/content_8116657.htm Beijing Olympic torch relay concludes in Haikou], Xinhua. May 6, 2008.</ref>
 
 
'''[[Guangdong]], [[People's Republic of China|China]]''': On [[May 7]], the torch relay reached Guangzhou, the largest city in the province. The torch relay took 40 km with 208 torchbearers. The relay started at 8:10 am local time, passing by several landmarks in the city such as Guangzhou Art Museum, Beijing Road and Consulate District Square. The relay then ended at the celebration site near Tianhe Sports Complex at 6:20 pm local time. The torch will then travel to [[Shenzhen]], the second largest city in the province.<ref>[http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-05/07/content_8123081.htm Olympic flame relayed in Guangzhou amid over 1 mln people's cheers], Xinhua. May 7, 2008.</ref>
 
 
'''[[Mt Everest]], [[People's Republic of China|China]]''': On [[May 8]], a simultaneous run of the torch was done as part of the [[2008 Summer Olympics summit of Mt. Everest|summit on Mt. Everest]]
 
 
'''[[Fujian]], [[People's Republic of China|China]]''': On [[May 11]], the torch relay reached Fujian province. [[Beijing Organizing Committee]] invited people from [[Taiwan]] to be part of the Fujian run, but the organisers offered no further details.<ref name="scmpquan">SCMP. "[http://www.scmp.com/portal/site/SCMP/menuitem.2af62ecb329d3d7733492d9253a0a0a0/?vgnextoid=bc47804d25bd9110VgnVCM100000360a0a0aRCRD&ss=China&s=News SCMP]." ''Cross-strait theme for Quanzhou relay.'' Retrieved on [[2008-05-12]].</ref> Geographically Fujian is directly across from Taiwan. The [[Quanzhou]] leg carried a [[Cross-Strait relations|cross-strait]] theme. Fujian has actively promoted itself to represent the western side of the [[Taiwan Strait]].<ref name="scmpquan" /> A 28-year old man in [[Jiangsu]] known as "Tang" was arrested after spreading rumors online he would go to [[Nanjing]] (the May 27th leg) to grab the torch.<ref name="scmpshen">SCMP. "[http://www.scmp.com/portal/site/SCMP/menuitem.2af62ecb329d3d7733492d9253a0a0a0/?vgnextoid=e54360bf7d8d9110VgnVCM100000360a0a0aRCRD&ss=China&s=News SCMP]." ''Man arrested for chat-room threat to grab torch.'' Retrieved on [[2008-05-15]].</ref> Unlike previous cities in the mainland relay, the last leg of the run in [[Longyan]] was in a gloomy mood shadowed by the [[May 12]] [[2008 Sichuan earthquake|Sichuan earthquake]].<ref>SCMP. "[http://www.scmp.com/portal/site/SCMP/menuitem.2af62ecb329d3d7733492d9253a0a0a0/?vgnextoid=3f6baf66c41e9110VgnVCM100000360a0a0aRCRD&ss=china&s=news SCMP]." ''United we stand.'' Retrieved on [[2008-05-13]].</ref>
 
 
'''[[Jiangxi]], [[People's Republic of China|China]]''': On [[May 14]], the relay began with a [[moment of silence]] and [[donation]] relief at [[Ruijin]] for the earthquake victims.
 
 
'''[[Zhejiang]], [[People's Republic of China|China]]''': On [[May 17]] the relay began. The relay was suspended from May 19 to 21, as the [[State Council of the People's Republic of China|State Council]] designated these three days as national days of mourning for the victims in the [[2008 Sichuan earthquake]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-05/18/content_8200611.htm
 
|title=China announces three-day mourning for quake victims, suspension of torch relay
 
|publisher=[[Xinhua News Agency]] |date=2008-05-18 |accessdate=2008-05-18}}</ref>
 
 
'''[[Shanghai]], [[People's Republic of China|China]]''': On [[May 23]], the relay began. Tens of thousands gathered at the famous [[People's Square (Shanghai)|People’s Square]] and [[the Bund]] along the [[Huangpu River]]. Friday’s relay ended in [[Pudong]], the crown-jewel of Shanghai’s districts and PRC’s financial capital. The two-day Shanghai leg of the relay concluded in Anting, an automobile hub in Shanghai’s suburbs, and home to the city’s [[Formula One]] [[Shanghai International Circuit]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thehindu.com/2008/05/24/stories/2008052460331600.htm
 
|title=Full turnout in Shanghai for relay
 
|publisher=[[The Hindu]] |date=2008-5-24 |accessdate=2008-05-28}}</ref>
 
There was no interruptions.
 
 
'''[[Jiangsu]], [[People's Republic of China|China]]''': On [[May 25]], the relay began. There were no interruptions.
 
 
'''[[Anhui]], [[People's Republic of China|China]]''': On [[May 28]], the relay began. There were no interruptions.
 
<!--
 
*'''[[Hubei]]''' - [[May 29]]
 
*'''[[Hunan]]''' - [[June 1]]
 
*'''[[Guangxi]]''' - [[June 4]]
 
*'''[[Yunnan]]''' - [[June 7]]
 
*'''[[Guizhou]]''' - [[June 10]]
 
*'''[[Chongqing]]''' - [[June 13]]
 
*'''[[Sichuan]]''' - [[June 15]]
 
*'''[[Tibet Autonomous Region|Tibet]]''' - [[June 19]]
 
*'''[[Qinghai]]''' - [[June 22]]
 
*'''[[Xinjiang]]''' - [[June 25]]
 
*'''[[Gansu]]''' - [[June 28]]
 
*'''[[Ningxia]]''' - [[July 2]]
 
*'''[[Shaanxi]]''' - [[July 5]]
 
*'''[[Shanxi]]''' - [[July 8]]
 
*'''[[Inner Mongolia]]''' - [[July 11]]
 
*'''[[Heilongjiang]]''' - [[July 14]]
 
*'''[[Jilin]]''' - [[July 17]]
 
*'''[[Liaoning]]''' - [[July 20]]
 
*'''[[Shandong]]''' - [[July 23]]
 
*'''[[Henan]]''' - [[July 28]]
 
*'''[[Hebei]]''' - [[August 1]]
 
*'''[[Tianjin]]''' - [[August 4]]
 
*'''[[Beijing]]''' - [[August 6]] -->
 
 
==Controversies==
 
===Media coverage===
 
The coverage of the events by the media came under scrutiny during the relay. [[Media of the People's Republic of China|Chinese media]] coverage of the torch relay has been distinct in a number of ways from coverage elsewhere. [[Western world|Western]] reporters in Beijing have described Chinese media coverage as partial and censored (for example when Chinese media did not broadcast [[Reporters Without Borders]]' disruption of [[2008_Summer_Olympics_torch_relay#Inception|the torch lighting ceremony]]),<ref> [http://www.europe1.fr/informations/articles/1229873/sarkozy-n-exclut-pas-un-boycott-de-la-ceremonie-des-jo.html "Sarkozy n'exclut pas un boycott de la cérémonie des JO"], [[Europe 1]], March 25, 2008 See also: [http://info.rsr.ch/fr/news/Un_allumage_agite_pour_la_flamme_des_JO.html?siteSect=2010&sid=8889857&cKey=1206432480000 "Un allumage agité pour la flamme des JO"], [[Radio Suisse Romande]], March 25, 2008</ref> whereas Chinese [[netizen]]s have in turn accused Western media coverage of being biased.<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7347821.stm "China online: Tibet and torch reaction"], BBC, April 17, 2008 See also: [http://observers.france24.com/en/content/20080417-china-tibet-CNN-criticism-propaganda "China's new chart-topper: 'Don’t be too like CNN'"], France 24, April 17, 2008 See also: [http://observers.france24.com/en/content/20080317-cnn-accused-propaganda-tibet-riots "CNN accused of bending the truth about Tibet"], France 24, April 17, 2008</ref> The French newspaper ''[[Libération]]'' was criticised by the Chinese State press agency [[Xinhua]] for its allegedly biased reporting; Xinhua suggested that ''Libération'' needed "a stinging slap in the face" for having "insulted the Olympic flame" and "supported a handful of saboteurs".<ref> [http://www.french.xinhuanet.com/french/2008-04/13/content_613929.htm "Donnons une claque cinglante à « Libération »"], Xinhua, April 13, 2008</ref>
 
 
In response to pro-Tibet and pro-human rights protests, the Chinese media focused on the more disruptive protesters, referring for example to "a very small number of 'Tibet independence' secessionists and a handful of so-called human rights-minded NGO activists" intent on "disrupting and sabotaging the Beijing Olympic Games".<ref>[http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/08/content_7938958.htm "Beijing Olympic official strongly condemns disruption of torch relay in Paris"], Xinhua, April 8, 2008 See also: [http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/10/content_7949592.htm "Tibetan separatists try to sabotage Olympic torch relay in U.S."], Xinhua, April 10, 2008</ref> However, the Chinese media published articles about crowds supporting the torch relay.<ref>[http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/10/content_7949489.htm "Crowds gather to show support for Olympic torch relay"] Xinhua, April 10, 2008</ref>
 
 
Xinhua and [[China Central Television|CCTV]] quoted relay spectators who condemned the protests,<ref>[http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/08/content_7936094.htm "French Olympic chief, spectators condemn disruption of Olympic torch relay in Paris"], Xinhua, April 8, 2008 See also: [http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/08/content_7942595.htm "Netizens worldwide condemn violent protests at Olympic torch relay"], April 8, 2008 See also: [http://www.cctv.com/english/20080410/104085.shtml "Chinese Americans criticize torch relay disturbance"], [[China Central Television|CCTV]], April 10, 2008</ref> to a greater extent than most Western media, but did not quote any alternate viewpoints, providing no coverage of support for the protests by some ordinary citizens in Western countries. It quoted athletes who expressed pride at taking part in the relays,<ref>[http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/07/content_7935588.htm "Ugandan track queen steps up training for Olympic torch relay"], Xinhua, April 7, 2008</ref> to a greater extent than Western media, but not those who, like [[Marie-José Pérec]],<ref>[http://fr.youtube.com/watch?v=Fa2mgY36__g Marie-José Pérec] interviewed by [[France 24]], April 7, 2008</ref> expressed understanding and support for the protestors. The Beijing Organising Committee for the Games mentioned the "smiling faces of the elderly, children and the artists on the streets", of cheering and supportive [[London]]ers.<ref>[http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/journey/london/news/n214295808.shtml "Ambassador Fu: Olympic torch spreads message of peace to the world"], official torch relay website, April 7, 2008</ref> Xinhua said that protesters were "radicals" who "trampled human rights" and whose activities were condemned by "the people of the world who cordially love the Olympic spirit".<ref>[http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/10/content_7954807.htm "BOOC thanks overseas supporters for torch relay, criticizes radical saboteurs"], Xinhua, April 10, 2008</ref>
 
 
Reports on the [[Delhi]] relay were similarly distinct. Despite intended torchbearers [[Kiran Bedi]],<ref>[http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/Wont_be_caged_so_wont_run_with_torch_Kiran_Bedi/articleshow/2939640.cms "Won't be caged, so won't run with torch: Kiran Bed"], ''The Times of India'', April 10, 2008</ref> [[Soha Ali Khan]],<ref>[http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/000200804151560.htm "Soha opts out of Olympic torch relay"], ''The Hindu'', April 15, 2008</ref> [[Sachin Tendulkar]]<ref>[http://www.newstrackindia.com/newsdetails/3133 "Tendulkar bowed out from Olympic torch relay"], Newstrack India, April 16, 2008</ref> and [[Bhaichung Bhutia]]<ref>[http://www.chinapost.com.tw/asia/india/2008/04/01/149897/India's-soccer.htm "India's soccer captain refuses to join in Beijing Olympic torch run in Indian capital"], Sandeep Nakai, ''The China Post'' (Taiwan), April 1, 2008</ref> all withdrawing from the event, the official Chinese website for the relay reported "Indian torchbearers vow to run for spirit of Olympics", and quoted torchbearers [[Manavjit Singh Sandhu]], [[Abhinav Bindra]], [[Ayaan - Amaan|Ayaan Ali Bangash]] and [[Rajinder Singh Rahelu]] all stating that sports and politics should not be mixed.<ref>[http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/journey/newdelhi/news/n214310121.shtml "Indian torchbearers vow to run for spirit of Olympics"], official torch relay website, April 16, 2008</ref>
 
 
Chinese media have also reported on [[Jin Jing]],<ref>[http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/10/content_7949378.htm "Handicapped Jin receives hero's welcome for protecting Olympic torch in Paris"], Xinhua, April 10, 2008 See also: [http://www.shanghaidaily.com/sp/article/2008/200804/20080409/article_355239.htm "Touche: Assailant meets match"], Lydia Chen, ''Shanghai Daily'', April 9, 2008 See also: [http://www.cctv.com/english/20080410/104102.shtml "Handicapped girl wins respect for protecting sacred flame"], [[China Central Television|CCTV]], April 10, 2008</ref> whom the official Chinese torch relay website described as "heroic"<ref>[http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/torchbearers/headlines/n214298691.shtml "Photos: Heroic torchbearer Jin Jing back in Beijing"], official torch relay website, April 9, 2008</ref> and an "angel",<ref>[http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/torchbearers/headlines/n214299534.shtml "Chinese angel comes home"], official torch relay website, April 10, 2008</ref> whereas Western media initially gave her little mention - despite a Chinese claim that "Chinese Paralympic athlete Jin Jing has garnered much attention from the media".<ref>[http://torchrelay.beijing2008.cn/en/torchbearers/headlines/n214299282.shtml "Jin: Protecting the torch is my duty"], official torch relay website, April 10, 2008</ref>
 
 
Some Western media have reported on Chinese accusations of Western media bias. ''[[The Daily Telegraph]]'' published an opinion piece by the Chinese ambassador to the United Kingdom, [[Fu Ying]], who accused Western media of "demonising" China during their coverage of the torch relays.<ref>[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/opinion/main.jhtml?xml=/opinion/2008/04/12/do1210.xml "Chinese ambassador Fu Ying: Western media has 'demonised' China"], Fu Ying, ''The Daily Telegraph'', April 13, 2008</ref> ''The Telegraph'' also asked its readers to send their views in response to the question "Is the West demonising China?"<ref>[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?view=BLOGDETAIL&grid=F11&blog=yourview&xml=/news/2008/04/13/view13b.xml "Is the West demonising China?"], ''The Daily Telegraph'', April 13, 2008</ref> The [[BBC]] reported on a demonstration in [[Sydney]] by Chinese Australians "voicing support for Beijing amid controversy over Tibet" and protesting against what they saw as Western media bias. The report showed demonstrators carrying signs which read "Shame on some Western media", "BBC CNN lies too" and "Stop media distortion!". One demonstrator interviewed by the BBC stated: "I saw some news from CNN, from the BBC, some media [inaudible], and they are just lying."<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/player/nol/newsid_7340000/newsid_7345600/7345670.stm?bw=bb&mp=rm&asb=1&news=1&bbcws=1 "Pro-China rally in Australia"], BBC, April 14, 2008</ref> ''Libération'' also reported that it had been accused of bias by the Chinese media.<ref> [http://www.liberation.fr/rebonds/making_of/320740.FR.php "«Libé» épinglé en Chine"], Pascale Nivelle, ''Libération'', April 12, 2008</ref>
 
 
On April 17, Xinhua condemned what it called "biased coverage of the [[2008_unrest_in_Tibet#Violence_and_protests_in_Lhasa|Lhasa riots]] and the Olympic torch relay by the U.S.-based [[Cable News Network]] (CNN)".<ref>[http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/17/content_7995562.htm "CNN biased coverage comes under fire"], Xinhua, April 17, 2008</ref> The same day, the Chinese government called on CNN to "apologise" for having allegedly insulted the Chinese people, and for "attempting to incite the Chinese people against the government".<ref>[http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/17/content_7997716.htm "China urges again that CNN sincerely apologizes over insulting words"], Xinhua, April 17, 2008</ref> CNN issued a statement on April 14, responded to China over 'thugs and goons' comment by [[Jack Cafferty]].<ref>[http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article3756437.ece CNN apologises to China over 'thugs and goons' comment by Jack Cafferty] Alexi Mostrous, Times, April 16, 2008. </ref>
 
 
On April 19, the BBC reported that 1,300 people had gathered outside BBC buildings in [[Manchester]] and London, protesting against what they described as Western media bias.<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7356107.stm "Anti-French rallies across China"], BBC, April 19, 2008</ref> Several days earlier, the BBC had published an article entitled "The challenges of reporting in China", responding to earlier criticism. The BBC's Paul Danahar noted that Chinese people were now "able to access the BBC News website for the first time, after years of strict censorship", and that "many were critical of our coverage". He provided readers with a reminder of censorship in China, and added: "People who criticise the media for their coverage in Tibet should acknowledge that we were and still are banned from reporting there." He also quoted critical Chinese responses, and invited readers to comment.<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7327886.stm "The challenges of reporting in China"], BBC, April 3, 2008</ref>
 
 
On April 20, the ''[[People's Daily]]'' published a report entitled "Overseas Chinese rally against biased media coverage, for Olympics". It included images of Chinese people demonstrating in France, the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States. One picture showed Chinese demonstrators holding a sign which claimed, incorrectly,<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7347821.stm "China online: Tibet and torch reaction"], BBC, April 17, 2008 See also: [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7347918.stm "Carrefour faces China boycott bid"], BBC, April 15, 2008</ref> that the BBC had not reported on Jin Jing.<ref>[http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90783/6395565.html "Overseas Chinese rally against biased media coverage, for Olympics"], ''People's Daily'', April 20, 2008</ref> The ''People's Daily'' quoted one protestor who claimed the "BBC on some of the recent events has misled the British public and the rest of the world by providing intensive untruthful reports and biased coverage."<ref>[http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/6395568.html "Overseas Chinese in Britain rally in protest against Western media distortion"], ''People's Daily'', April 20, 2008</ref>
 
 
On April 4, it was reported that the Chinese government appeared to be running an anti-CNN website that criticizes the cable network’s coverage of recent events. The site claims to have been created by a Beijing citizen. However, foreign correspondents in Beijing voiced suspicions that [[Anti-cnn]] may be a semi-government-made website. A Chinese government spokesman insisted the site was spontaneously set up by a Chinese citizen angered over media coverage. <ref>[http://www.worldtribune.com/worldtribune/WTARC/2008/ea_china0026_04_04.asp Report: China seen sponsoring anti-CNN website], World Tribune. April 4, 2008.</ref>
 
 
===Torch Security===
 
[[Image:Olympic Torch relay London.jpg|thumb|In blue, Beijing Olympic Games Sacred Flame Protection Unit,<ref name='flameguards'>{{cite news
 
| title = Turned off by torch guards
 
| language = English
 
| publisher = [[msnbc.com]]
 
| date = 11/04/2008
 
| url = http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24060377/
 
| accessdate = 2008-04-11}}</ref> escorting the Olympic Torch as it passes through [[Notting Hill]] in [[London]].]]
 
The Beijing Olympic Organizing Committee sent out a team of 30 unarmed attendants selected from the [[People's Armed Police]] to escort the flame throughout its journey.<ref>{{cite news
 
| title = Torch song trilogy
 
| language = English
 
| publisher = [[The Economist]]
 
| date = 10/04/2008
 
| url = http://www.economist.com/world/asia/displaystory.cfm?story_id=11016360
 
| accessdate = 2008-04-14}}</ref> According to Asian Times, sworn in as the "Beijing Olympic Games Sacred Flame Protection Unit" during a ceremony in August 2007, their main job is to keep the Olympic flame alight throughout the journey and to assist in transferring the flame between the torches, the lanterns and the cauldrons.<ref name="atchinese"> {{cite web|url=http://www.atchinese.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=48431&Itemid=110|title=千中選一:“中國聖火護衛隊”惹關注}}</ref> They wear matching blue [[tracksuits]] and are intended to accompany the torch every step of the way.<ref>{{cite news | url =http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/apr/07/olympicgames2008.china | title =China's 'flame attendants' and world's most guarded relay | publisher = guardian.co.uk | date = 2008-04-07 | accessdate = 2008-04-08}}</ref> One of the torch attendants, dubbed "Second Right Brother", has developed a significant online fan-base, particularly among China's female [[netizen]]s.<ref>
 
{{cite web
 
|url=http://www.theage.com.au/news/web/hes-hot-to-trot/2008/05/07/1209839706971.html
 
|title=They're hot to trot for the keeper of the flame - web - Technology
 
|publisher=theage.com.au
 
|accessdate=2008-05-09
 
|last=
 
|first=
 
}}
 
</ref>
 
 
Two additional teams of 40 attendants each will accompany the flame on its Mainland China route.<ref name="atchinese" /> This arrangement has however sparked several controversies.
 
 
== Flashpoints ==
 
* On [[April 6]], [[Sebastian Coe]], the head of [[2012 Summer Olympics|2012 London Summer Olympics]] said about the attendants, "Horrible...They tried to push me out of the way three times. They did not speak English. They were thugs."<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7336639.stm "Tracksuited guardians of the flame"], BBC, April 9, 2008</ref> According to the [[China News Service]], however, the attendants have received training in five [[foreign language]]s (English, French, German, Spanish and Japanese) and the etiquette of various countries before their mission.<ref name="atchinese" /> [[Konnie Huq]] reportedly described them as "bloody aggressive" and "robotic".<ref>[http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/questions-raised-over-mysterious-men-in-blue-805747.html "Questions raised over mysterious 'men in blue'"], Jerome Taylor and Clifford Coonan, ''The Independent'', April 8, 2008</ref> The [[BBC]] reported that London's [[Metropolitan Police]] criticized the Protection Unit for "getting in the way of officers trying to restore calm".<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7336639.stm "Tracksuited guardians of the flame"], BBC, April 9, 2008</ref> Also in the [[United Kingdom]], [[Shadow Home Secretary]] [[David Davis (British politician)|David Davis]] expressed concerns about the Protection Unit, and asked [[Home Secretary]] [[Jacqui Smith]]: “Who in the British Government authorized their presence and what checks were made as to their background?”<ref>[http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article3671368.ece "Unmasked: Chinese guardians of Olympic torch"], ''The Times'', April 9, 2008</ref> [[Damian Hockney]], a member of the Metropolitan Police Authority, stated that "there's no way people like that should be allowed on our streets".<ref>[http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,546285,00.html "Sinister Keepers of the Flame: Controversy over 'Thuggish' Chinese Olympic Torch Guards"], Alexander Schwabe, ''[[Der Spiegel]]'', April 9, 2008</ref> At a later mayoral debate, the incumbent mayor, [[Ken Livingstone]], admitted that allowing the Chinese secret police to guard the Olympic torch during its London relay was a mistake saying "it was wrong and should not have happened".<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7348514.stm "Mayor admits olympic torch error"], [[BBC]] news website, April 15, 2008</ref> On [[April 25]], the British government's [[national security]] department, the [[Home Office]], passed complaints about Chinese security guards' conduct during the London Olympic torch relay to the Olympic Games organisers. [[Home Secretary]] [[Jacqui Smith]] stated that the guards had no policing powers and that they could only protect the Olympic flame by "placing themselves between the offender and the torch bearer". She also added, "We are raising concerns that have been reported in the media and by spectators at the torch relay with the Beijing Organising Committee for the Olympic Games through the event organisers." <ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/7367722.stm BBC NEWS | UK | Torch guards complaints reported<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 
*On [[April 7]], during the torch's journey through Paris, due to frequent attempts by protesters who were seemingly from the pro-Tibet camp to capture or extinguish the torch, flame attendants extinguished the torch on several occasions and removed it from the hands of torchbearers to place it aboard a bus,<ref>[http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,546285,00.html "Controversy over 'Thuggish' Chinese Olympic Torch Guards"], Alexander Schwabe, ''Der Spiegel'', April 9, 2008</ref> thus altering the intended relay. This prompted criticism from Paris' mayor, [[Bertrand Delanoë]], who accused them of "disrupting" the passing of the torch from athlete [[David Douillet]] to [[Teddy Riner]].<ref>[http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5jrX6u7zOOuUI-BZRehinsKXTBlMA "Delanoë: le passage de la flamme à Paris, "mouvement fort" en faveur du Tibet"], AFP, April 8, 2008 See also: [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sK75t46XVag&feature=related Video coverage] by [[France 2]], April 7, 2008</ref>
 
*On [[April 11]], the chairman of the [[National Public Safety Commission (Japan)|National Public Safety Commission]] of [[Japan]], [[Shinya Izumi]] indicated that Japan will not welcome "security runners" from China to accompany the Olympic torch when it arrives in [[Nagano]] if their role is to serve as guards.<ref name="Japan will not welcome Chinese Olympic torch guards, gov't official indicates">{{cite news | url =http://mdn.mainichi.jp/national/news/20080411p2a00m0na016000c.html | title =Japan won't welcome Chinese Olympic torch guards, gov't official indicates | publisher = [[Mainichi Shimbun|Mainichi Daily News]] | date = 2008-04-11 | accessdate = 2008-04-11}}</ref> Izumi said, "We do not know what position the people who escorted the relay are in," Izumi continued, "If they are for the consideration of security, it is our role."<ref>{{cite news | url =http://www.reuters.com/article/wtMostRead/idUST21452620080411 | title =Japan says no to Chinese torch guards: reports | publisher = [[Reuters]] | date = 2008-04-11 | accessdate = 2008-04-11}}</ref> The director-General of the [[National Police Agency (Japan)|National Police Agency]] of Japan, Hiroto Yoshimura said the issue was connected to Japan's sovereignty, "If the accompanying runners are there to provide maintenance for the torch, then there's no problem, but if they are providing security then it's a problem in terms of violating Japan's sovereignty, and we would tell the Chinese side not to provide security."<ref name="Japan will not welcome Chinese Olympic torch guards, gov't official indicates"/><ref>{{cite news | url =http://www.japantoday.com/category/national/view/japanese-authorities-express-concern-over-olympic-torch-relay-in-nagano | title =Japan won't let Chinese security guards accompany Olympic torch relay in Nagano | publisher = Japan Today | date = 2008-04-11 | accessdate = 2008-04-11}}</ref>
 
*On [[April 7]], the federal government of [[Australia]] ruled out any Chinese involvement in security operations when the Olympic torch arrives in Australia.<ref name="Torch to be guarded by Australians only">{{cite news | url =http://news.theage.com.au/torch-to-be-guarded-by-australians-only/20080408-24hu.html | title =Torch to be guarded by Australians only | publisher = news.theage.com.au | date = 2008-04-08 | accessdate = 2008-04-08}}</ref> Chinese flame attendants will be allowed into Australia, but only to maintain the flame. The chairman of the Canberra relay taskforce, Ted Quinlan, has stated they "could be subject to arrest [...] if they laid a hand on somebody".<ref>[http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/apr/16/olympicgames2008.australia "Australia warns Olympic torch guards over tough tactics"], Haroon Siddique, ''The Guardian'', April 16, 2008 See also: {{cite web|url=http://www.smh.com.au/news/beijing2008/torch-protesters-warned/2008/04/16/1208025249706.html?page=2|title=New police powers to stop torch violence}}</ref> On April 22, Chinese ambassador to Australia Zhang Junsai stated that the flame attendants would "use their bodies" to protect the torch in Canberra. Following a talk with Australian Olympic Committee president [[John Dowling Coates|John Coates]], Ambassador Zhang subsequently said that his statement had been "misinterpreted".<ref>[http://www.theage.com.au:80/news/general/olympic-torch-touchdown/2008/04/23/1208742976839.html "Olympic torch lands in Australia"], ''The Age'', April 23, 2008</ref> Coates said that the flame attendants were "technical assistants", and re-iterated that they would play no security role.<ref>[http://news.smh.com.au/olympic-flame-in-canberra-for-relay/20080423-27y0.html "Olympic flame in Canberra for relay"], ''Sydney Morning Herald'', April 23, 2008</ref> Shortly before the beginning of the Canberra relay, Australian and Chinese officials argued in public over the role of the flame attendants, during a press conference. Beijing spokesman Qu Yingpu stated that the attendants' role included security, a claim immediatedly rejected by [[Australian Capital Territory]] Chief Minister [[Jon Stanhope]], who, sitting a few metres from Qu and "clearly furious" according to the [[Herald Sun]], re-iterated once more that Australian police would handle all security.<ref>[http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,23590170-5016724,00.html "China's determination to 'defend' relay sparks fury"], Ben English, ''Herald Sun'', April 24, 2008 See also: [http://www.radioaustralia.net.au/news/stories/200804/s2225630.htm?tab=australia "Australia, China disagree on torch security"], ABC Radio Australia, April 23, 2008</ref> The [[International Olympic Committee]] subsequently backed Australia's position, with IOC president [[Jacques Rogge]] stating: "The sovereignty of Australia is absolute; security is a matter for Australia, it is not a matter for these people, that is very clear."<ref>[http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,23590716-12377,00.html "Rogge backs Rudd on torch security"], ''The Australian'', April 24, 2008</ref> During the relay itself, three Chinese guards nonetheless attempted to run alongsided the torchbearers, and were repeatedly pulled away by Australian police.<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7364031.stm "Smooth run for Australia's relay"], BBC, April 24, 2008</ref>
 
 
'''IOC Response'''
 
:In response to these controversies, the [[International Olympic Committee]] noted on [[April 9]] that the Protection Unit's role is "100% normal...The torch relay escort team is always supplied by the organising committee of the Games... there is nothing unusual about it".<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7336639.stm "Tracksuited guardians of the flame"], BBC, April 9, 2008</ref> The Chinese government has also responded to the criticism, with Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Jiang Yu stating: ''"Relevant countries should have a clear understanding of the rules of the escorts and understand their work. They have used their bodies to protect the torch, so their acts should be praised and the violent acts of those Tibet independence elements be condemned."''<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7351713.stm "Heavy security for torch in Delhi"], BBC, April 17, 2008</ref> Also, according to British journalist Brendan O’Neill, there is nothing mysterious about the security-service employees of the Beijing Olympic Organising Committee. O'Neill reported presence of foreign security officials in the UK and their duty to guard foreign embassies and protect visiting foreign dignitaries. During [[2004 Olympic Torch Relay|2004 Olympic torch relay]], Greek security officials followed and monitored the movement of the Olympic flame.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.spiked-online.com/index.php?/site/article/4963/|title=The invasion of the robotic thugs|publisher=spiked-online.com}}</ref>
 
 
==Reactions==
 
In China, a call to boycott French hypermart [[Carrefour]] from [[1 May]] began spreading through mobile [[text messaging]] and online chat rooms amongst the Chinese over the weekend from [[12 April]], accusing the company's major shareholder, the [[LVMH]] Group, of donating funds to the [[Dalai Lama]].<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.guardian.co.uk/feedarticle?id=7463240 | title = Chinese demand Carrefour boycott for Tibet "support" | publisher = guardian.co.uk | date = 2008-04-15 | accessdate = 2008-04-19 }}</ref> There were also calls to extend the boycott to include French luxury goods and cosmetic products.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.shanghaidaily.com/sp/article/2008/200804/20080415/article_355955.htm | title = Carrefour boycott drive widens | publisher = ShanghaiDaily.com | date = 2008-04-15 | accessdate = 2008-04-19 }}</ref> Chinese protesters organized boycotts of the French-owned retail chain [[Carrefour]] in major Chinese cities including [[Kunming]], [[Hefei]] and [[Wuhan]], accusing the French nation of pro-[[secession]]ist conspiracy and [[anti-Chinese]] racism. Some burned [[French flag]]s, some added [[Nazism]]'s ''[[Swastika]]'' to the French flag,<ref>{{cite news | url = http://www.reuters.com/news/pictures/searchpopup?picId=3943345 | title = National flag of France with Hakenkreuz added by Chinese protesters | publisher = Reuters | date = 2008-04-19 | accessdate = 2008-04-19 | language=French}}</ref> and spread short online messages calling for large protests in front of French consulates and embassy. Some shoppers who insisted on entering one of the Carrefour stores in Kunming were blocked by boycotters wielding large [[flag of the People's Republic of China|Chinese flags]] and hit by water bottles.<ref>{{cite news | url =http://news.sina.com/ch/nanfangdaily/102-000-101-101/2008-04-17/20422824425.html | title =昆明網友發起反抵制行動 家樂福前:國旗堵門水瓶砸人 | publisher = sina.com | date = 2008-04-17 | accessdate = 2008-04-18 | language=Chinese}} See also: {{cite news | url = http://fr.news.yahoo.com/rtrs/20080418/twl-chine-carrefour-manifestation-bd5ae06.html | title = Un drapeau français brûlé devant un magasin Carrefour en Chine | publisher = Reuters | date = 2008-04-19 | accessdate = 2008-04-19 | language=French}} See also: {{cite news | url = http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSPEK30252620080418 | title = Angry Chinese burn French flag outside Carrefour | publisher = Reuters | date = 2008-04-18 | accessdate = 2008-04-19}}</ref> Hundreds of people joined Anti-French rallies in Beijing, Wuhan, Hefei, Kunming and [[Qingdao]],<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7356107.stm "Anti-French rallies across China"], BBC, April 19, 2008</ref> which quickly spread to other cities like [[Xian]], [[Harbin]] and [[Jinan]].<ref>[http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_asiapacific/view/342557/1/.html Chinese cities hit by fresh anti-Western protests], ChannelNewsAsia.</ref> Carrefour denied any support or involvement in the Tibetan issue, and had its staff in its Chinese stores wear uniformed emblazoned with the Chinese national flag and caps with Olympic insignia and the words "Beijing 2008" to show its support for the games. The effort had to be ceased when the BOCOG deemed the use of official Olympic insignia as illegal and a violation of copyright.<ref>[http://www.reuters.com/article/reutersComService_2_MOLT/idUSPEK469020080429 Beijing strips Carrefour workers of goodwill hats], Reuters.</ref>
 
 
{| style="background-color: #F9F9F9; border: 1px solid #AAAAAA; font-size: 88%; margin-right:12px; padding: 6p;" align=left width=25%
 
|-
 
| <span style="color:grey; font-size:150%; font-family:'Times New Roman',serif; font-weight:bold;">“</span> ''The more the Dalai Lama clique tries to disrupt the Olympic torch relay and some Western politicians and media take advantage to launch attacks and condemn China, the more we need to unify with the people of the world to hold a successful Olympic Games.''<span style="color:grey; font-size:150%; font-family:'Times New Roman',serif; font-weight:bold;">”</span> <ref>[http://www.chinapost.com.tw/china/national%20news/2008/04/21/152848/Fresh-anti-Western.htm "Fresh anti-Western protests rock China"], Robert J. Saiget, AFP, [[April 21]] [[2008]]</ref> — [[Xinhua News Agency]]
 
|}
 
 
In response to the demonstrations, the Chinese government attempted to calm the situation, possibly fearing the protests may spiral out of control as has happened in recent years, including the anti-Japanese protests in 2005. State media and commentaries began to call for calm, such as an editorial in the ''[[People's Daily]]'' which urged Chinese people to "express [their] patriotic enthusiasm calmly and rationally, and express patriotic aspiration in an orderly and legal manner".<ref>[http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/90785/6396060.html "Protests continue; restraint urged"], ''People's Daily'', April 21, 2008.</ref> The government also began to patrol and censor the internet forums such as [[Sohu|Sohu.com]], with comments related to the Carrefour boycott removed.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://washingtontimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080415/FOREIGN/871683123/1003 | title = Chinese organize boycott of French goods | publisher = ''Washington Times'', Chris O'Brien | date = 2008-04-15 | accessdate = 2008-04-19 }}</ref> In the days prior to the planned boycott, evidence of efforts by Chinese authorities to choke the mass boycott's efforts online became even more evident, including barring searches of words related to the French protests, but protests broke out nonetheless in front of Carrefour's stores at Beijing, [[Changsha]], [[Fuzhou]] and [[Shenyang]] on [[1 May]].<ref>[http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_asiapacific/view/344896/1/.html Fresh protests staged at Carrefour stores in China], ChannelNewsAsia.</ref>
 
 
Pro-China rallies and demonstrations were held in several cities in response to the relay protests, including Paris, London, [[Berlin]] and [[Los Angeles]].<ref>[http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2008-04/20/content_6630183.htm Chinese holding rallies to back Beijing Games], China Daily.</ref>
 
 
In Japan, the Mayor of [[Nagano, Nagano|Nagano]], Shoichi Washizawa said that it has become a "great nuisance" for the city to host the torch relay prior to the Nagano leg. Washizawa's aides said the mayor's remark was not criticism about the relay itself but about the potential disruptions and confusion surrounding it.<ref>{{cite news | url =http://www.asahi.com/english/Herald-asahi/TKY200804180371.html | title =Temple pulls out of torch relay | publisher = [[Asahi Shimbun]] | date = 2008-04-19 | accessdate = 2008-04-19}}</ref> A city employee of the Nagano City Office ridiculed the protests in Europe, he said "They are doing something foolish", in a televised interview. Nagano City officially apologized later and explained what he had wanted to say was "Such violent protests were not easy to accept".<ref>{{cite news | url =http://www.city.nagano.nagano.jp/pcp_portal/PortalServlet?DISPLAY_ID=DIRECT&NEXT_DISPLAY_ID=U000004&CONTENTS_ID=13392 | title =市職員の不適切発言について(おわび) | publisher = Nagano City Office | date = 2008-04 | accessdate = 2008-04-18 | language=Japanese}}</ref>
 
Also citing concerns about protests as well as the recent violence in Tibet, a major Buddhist temple in Nagano cancelled its plans to host the opening stage of the Olympic torch relay,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7353809.stm|title= Japan temple rejects torch relay|publisher=[[BBC]]|date=[[18 April]], [[2008]]}}</ref> this temple was vandalised by an un-identified person the day after in apparent revenge,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20080421a2.html|title=Temple defaced after torch refusal|publisher=[[The Japan Times]]|date=2008-04-21}}</ref>
 
 
A competing torch relay organized by the NGO ''Human rights torch relay'' has been held to protest China's human rights record. The relay route includes stops in all six continents and in over 40 countries.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.humanrightstorch.org | title = Human Rights Torch Relay | publisher = | date = | accessdate = 2008-05-12}}</ref>
 
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
{{reflist|3}}
 
{{reflist|3}}
 
==See also==
 
* [[2004 Summer Olympics torch relay]]
 
* [[2008 Summer Olympics summit of Mt. Everest]]
 
* [[Human Rights Torch Relay]] awareness relay for [[Human Rights in China]]
 
   
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
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| Olympic Torch Relay in London || Olympic Torch Relay in Paris
 
| Olympic Torch Relay in London || Olympic Torch Relay in Paris
 
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[[Category:Beijing 2008]]
 
[[Category:Beijing 2008]]

Revision as of 18:21, September 16, 2012

File:2008 Olympic Torch Relay, London AB2.JPG

The 2008 Summer Olympics Torch Relay will run until August 8, 2008, prior to the Games of the XXIX Olympiad. Plans for the relay were announced on April 26, 2007, in Beijing, China.[1] The relay, with the theme "Journey of Harmony", is expected[2] to last 129 days and carry the torch 137,000 km (85,000 mi) — the longest distance of any Olympic torch relay since the National Socialist German Workers' Party started the tradition at the 1936 Berlin Olympics.

After being lit at the birthplace of the Olympic Games in Olympia, Greece on March 24, the torch traveled to the Panathinaiko Stadium in Athens, and then to Beijing, arriving on March 31. From Beijing, the torch is following a route passing through six continents. The torch will visit cities along the Silk Road, symbolizing ancient links between China and the rest of the world. The relay also included an ascent with the flame to the top of Mount Everest on the border of Nepal and Tibet, China from the Chinese side, which was closed specially for the event.[3]

In many cities along the route, the torch relay has been met by protesters representing a range of political issues, particularly those related to China's human rights record, the struggle for freedom in Tibet, the genocide in Darfur, China's support to dictatorships in Myanmar and Zimbabwe, North Korean defectors, territorial disputes over the Spratly and Paracel Islands with Vietnam, Falun Gong persecution and the political status of Taiwan, resulting in violence at various locations. These protests, which ranged from tens of thousands of people in San Francisco,[4] to effectively none in Pyongyang, have forced the path of the torch relay to be changed or shortened on a number of occasions. The torch was extinguished by Chinese security officials several times during the Paris leg for security reasons.[5]

The protests in Europe were described as "despicable" by the Chinese government, condemning them as "deliberate disruptions...who gave no thought to the Olympic spirit or the laws of Britain and France" and who "tarnish the lofty Olympic spirit", and vowed they would continue with the relay and not allow the protests to "impede the Olympic spirit"[6]. Large-scale counter-protests by overseas Chinese and foreign-based Chinese nationals became prevalent in later segments of the relay.

Prompted by the chaotic torch relays in Europe and North America, the president of the International Olympic Committee, Jacques Rogge described the situation as a "crisis" for the organization and stated that any athletes displaying the Flag of Tibet at Olympic venues could be expelled from the games,[7][8] though he stopped short of cancelling the relay altogether despite calls to do so by some IOC members[9]. The outcome of the relay will likely influence the IOC's decision on whether or not to scrap global relays in future editions of the games.[10]

In June 2008, the Beijing Games' Organizing Committee announced that the planned international torch relay for the Paralympic Games had been canceled. The Committee stated that the relay was being canceled to enable the Chinese government to "focus on the rescue and relief work" following the Sichuan earthquake.[11]


Relay elements

Torch

File:Official 2008 Summer Olympics Torch in Vilnius.jpg
Main article: Olympic Flame

The Olympic Torch is based on traditional scrolls and uses a traditional Chinese design known as "Lucky Cloud". It is made from aluminum. It is 72 centimetres high and weighs 985 grams. The torch is designed to remain lit in 65 kilometre per hour winds, and in rain of up to 50 millimetres per hour.[12] An ignition key is used to ignite and extinguish the flame. The torch is fueled by cans of propane. Each can will light the torch for 15 minutes.[13] It is designed by a team from Lenovo Group. The Torch is designed in reference to the traditional Chinese concept of the 5 elements that make up the entire universe.


Lanterns
The Olympic Flame is supposed to remain lit for the whole relay.[14] When the Torch is extinguished at night, on airplanes, in bad weather, or during protests (such as the several occasions in Paris[15]), the Olympic Flame is kept alight in a set of 8 lanterns.


Aircraft
Internationally, the torch and its accompanying party travels in a chartered Air China Airbus A330 (registered B-6075), painted in the red and yellow colours of the Olympic Games.[16][17] Air China was chosen by the Beijing Committees of the Olympic Game as the designated Olympic torch carrier in March, 2008 for its long-standing participation in the Olympic cause. The plane will travel a total of 85,077 mi (136,918 km)for a duration of 130 days through 21 countries and regions.[18][17]


Route

Main article: 2008 Summer Olympics torch relay route
File:Beijing 2008 Torch Relay Route (China).png
File:Beijing 2008 Torch Relay Route.png

The announced route will carry the torch through six continents from March 2008 to May 2008 to August 2008. The planned route originally included a stop in Taipei between Ho Chi Minh City and Hong Kong, but there was disagreement in Beijing and Taipei over language used to describe whether it was an international or a domestic part of the route. While the Olympic committees of China and Chinese Taipei reached initial consensus on the approach, the government of the Republic of China in Taiwan intervened, stating that this placement could be interpreted as placing Taiwan on the same level as Hong Kong and Macau, an implication it objected to. The Beijing Organizing Committee attempted to continue negotiation,[19] but further disputes arose over the placement and usage of the flag or the anthem of the Republic of China along the 24 km torch route in Taiwan.[20] As of the midnight deadline for concluding the negotiation on September 21, 2007, Taiwan and China were unable to come to terms with the issue of the Torch Relay. In the end, both sides of the Taiwan Strait decided to eliminate the Taipei leg.[21]

References

  1. "Beijing 2008: BOCOG Announces Olympic Torch Relay Route", International Olympic Committee, 2007-04-26. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.
  2. Officials Expect Olympic Torch to Continue on Route.
  3. "Beijing 2008 Olympic Torch Relay Planned Route and Torch Design unveiled", BOCOG, 2007-04-26. Retrieved on 2007-04-26. See also: 'No change in Tibet torch rally route', Times of India, Retrieved on 10 April 2008.
  4. Olympic torch San Francisco | Salon News
  5. "Paris protests force cancellation of torch relay.", msnbc.com, 2008-04-07. Retrieved on 2008-04-07.
  6. China condemns "despicable" torch disruptions, Reuters. April 7, 2008.
  7. IOC flags athlete free speech dilemma, The Australian. April 12, 2008.
  8. Olympic Official Calls Protests a ‘Crisis’, The New York Times. April 11, 2008.
  9. IOC mulls cancellation of torch relay, USAToday. April 8, 2008.
  10. IOC mulls abandoning international routes in future, The Economic Times. April 8, 2008.
  11. "International torch relay for Beijing Paralympic Games cancelled", Xinhua, June 25, 2008
  12. The Beijing Olympic Torch, The Official Website of the 2008 Summer Olympics Torch Relay
  13. 示威不斷 聖火難傳 境外是否續運 奧委周五定奪, Apple Daily.
  14. The Torch Relay lantern, The Official Website of the 2008 Summer Olympics Torch Relay
  15. "La Chine condamne les troubles sur le parcours de la flamme", France 24, April 8, 2008
  16. Olympic Torch Emits 5,500 Tons of CO2, ABC News (April 9, 2008).
  17. 17.0 17.1 Air China Successfully Wins the Title of 'Designated Olympic Torch Carrier', Reuters (March 18, 2008).
  18. Air China Carries the Olympic Torch around the Globe.
  19. "Taiwan rejects China's torch relay plans", USA Today, 2007-04-26. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.
  20. Editorial: New Olympic event: Torch tug-of-war. Taipei Times.
  21. Taiwan, China Fail to Reach Agreement on Olympic Torch Route.

External links

Official sites

Official videos

Other sites

Media

  • BBC video of the torch relay in Bangkok, showing supporters with Chinese flags, and pro-Tibet protesters
Olympic Torch Relay in London Olympic Torch Relay in Paris

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